14 Lec 14 mycorrhizal symbiosis

14 Lec 14 mycorrhizal symbiosis - Mycorrhizal Symbioses...

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I. Introduction and history II. Types and distribution of mycorrhizae 1. Endomycorrhizae: Arbuscular 2. Ectomycorrhizae 3. Orchidaceous mycorrhizae 4. Ericaceous mycorrhizae 5. Changes of mycorrhizal types with latitude/altitude III. Benefits to the plant 1. Improved plant nutrition 2. Increased tolerance to salts, heavy metals, pathogens and drought 3. Increased soil aggregation IV. Benefits to the fungi V. Cultural effects 1. Soil disturbance 2. Crop rotations and fallow systems Reading : Textbook: Sylvia et al., 2004. Chapter 12, pages 263-282. Article from Pennisi, 2004 Mycorrhizal Symbioses Mycorrhizal Symbioses
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Mycorrhiza fungus root Mutual beneficial association
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Mycorrhizae are the rule , not the exception Obligatorily mycorrhizal plants Facultatively mycorrhizal plants Nonmycorrhizal plants NOT for Brassicaceae & Chenopodiaceae The extent of symbiosis depends on soil fertility Mycorrhizae
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Fossil records show that fungus-plant associations are as old as terrestrial plants Fossil Record Redecker et al., 2000. Science Spores of present-day Glomus sp. Fossil hyphae and spores from the Ordovician
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1840: First illustration by R. Hartig 1847: First description of fungal cells associated with orchids by S. Reissek 1881: First description of fungus layer surrounding tree roots by F. Kanienski 1885: First recognition of fungus-root structure by A.B. Frank = Mykorrhizen History See Pennisi, Science, 2004 (mandatory reading on bspace)
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Main types of mycorrhizae Mycorrhizal Types and Distribution Ectomycorrhiza Endomycorrhiza
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Main types of mycorrhizae Mycorrhizal Types and Distribution Ectomycorrhiza Endomycorrhiza AM in Thuja occidentalis (White Cedar, Cupressaceae) root cross section Ectomycorrhizae in Larix laracina (Larch, Pinaceae) root cross section
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2010 for the course ESPM 131 taught by Professor Pallud during the Spring '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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14 Lec 14 mycorrhizal symbiosis - Mycorrhizal Symbioses...

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