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19 Lec 19 viruses

19 Lec 19 viruses - Viruses in soil Viruses are molecular...

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I. Introduction II. General properties of viruses 1. Size and morphology 2. Types of viruses 3. The structure of viruses 4. General features of virus replication III. Virus ecology 1. Abundance and diversity of viruses in soil 2. Survival and transport of viruses in soil IV. Viroids and prions Reading : Textbook: Sylvia et al., 2004. Chapter 9, pages 201-221. + facultative readings posted on bspace: 5 research papers Viruses in soil Viruses in soil Viruses are molecular sharks, a motive without a mind. – Richard Preston
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Introduction Very little effect on biological processes in soil However, they affect soil bacteria, fungi, animals, plants… so soil ecology
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Infectious agents Acellular DNA or RNA + coat of protein Reproduce within living cells Definition
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Enormous impacts on humans virus (latin) = poison, toxin
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Edward Jenner, first vaccination (1798) History
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Ivanovski (1892) and Beijerinck (1898): first discoveries of living entities smaller than bacteria History Martinus Beijerinck Dimitri Ivanovski
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Lwoff (1957): “viruses are infectious agents made up of nucleic acids and proteins but unable to grow independently or reproduce by binary fission” History André Lwoff
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Viruses in soil?
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20-30 nm in size General Properties of Viruses bacterium virus
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mimivirus, originally mistaken for a bacterium because of its size
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20-30 nm in size Only 10 to 200 genes are coded Extracellular (virion) and intracellular phases Considered as “non-living organisms” by some General Properties of Viruses bacterium virus
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To Be, or Not To Be?
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