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Lecture 11 SLIDES - ANNOUNCEMENTS Monday February 22nd...

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ANNOUNCEMENTS - Monday, February 22nd Results of Midterm II: Mean: 114 +/- 19 (last time 119 +/- 18) High Score: 156.5 Low Score: 69.5 Grade Estimates: A 130-150 B 112-129 C 93-111 D 74-92 Exams returned after class tonight. Wednesday will feature “The Double Helix”. Movie about Watson and Crick’s race for the structure of DNA. Exam questions will cover the movie. 97 Minutes!! Mendelian Genetics Chapter 14 Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction Asexual reproduction One parent produces genetically identical offspring by mitosis Parent Bud 0.5 mm Sexual reproduction Two parents give rise to offspring with unique combinations of genes Figure 13.1
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Offspring inherit a combination of parental traits Heredity transmission of traits from one generation to the next Variation offspring differ from parents and siblings Genetics scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation What genetic principles account for the transmission of traits from parents to offspring? The “blending” hypothesis of inheritance - Genetic material from parents mix in each generation The “particulate” hypothesis of inheritance - Parents pass on discrete heritable units, genes X No Yes Gregor Mendel, the father of genetics Documented a “particulate” mechanism of inheritance through his experiments with garden peas Figure 14.1 1857- Experimental discovery of inheritance mechanisms Mendel asked questions: What are the causes of variation in plants? Mendel devised carefully-planned experiments: Controlled breeding between varieties of garden peas and mathematical analysis of offspring Mendel interpreted his results: Discovered two Laws of inheritance !
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Mendel’s Two Laws of Inheritance 1. Law of Segregation 2. Law of Independent Assortment Mendel’s Experimental, Quantitative Approach Mendel’s good decision to work with peas (or why he was supremely lucky): “true-breeding” varieties controlled matings (parent crosses) can easily track multiple generations “either-or” characters large sample size, for statistics Genetic Vocabulary Character a heritable feature, such as flower color Trait a variant of a character, such as purple or white flowers How to Cross (Pollinate) Pea Plants METHOD: Hybridization 1. Transfer pollen from white flower to purple flowers Pollinated carpel makes pod 2. Plant seeds from pod 3. Examine and quantitate offspring flower color…. Figure 14.2 1 5 4 3 2 Removed stamens from purple flower Transferred sperm- bearing pollen from stamens of white flower to egg- bearing carpel of purple flower Parental generation (P) Pollinated carpel matured into pod Carpel (female) Stamens (male) Planted seeds from pod Examined offspring: all purple flowers First generation offspring (F 1 )
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Mendel’s breeding experiments: two-generational crosses Experimental Design: “P generation” ( the first cross ) Hybridization of 2 true-breeding varieties “F1 generation” ( used for the second cross ) The hybrid offspring of P generation “F2 generation” ( the results!) The offspring of self-pollinated F1 individuals Figure 14.3 Purple flowers
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