Hurricanes_I_Notes

Hurricanes_I_Notes - 1 See

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See http://www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/jetstream/tropics/tc.htm A “cyclone” refers to an area of low pressure with inward spiraling winds of counterclockwise rotation in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise rotation in the Southern hemisphere. There are tropical and extratropical cylones (e.g. Nor’easter), classified based on their place of origin. Extratropical cylcones develop over land and/or water (between 30º-70º latitude) and are generally associated with fronts. Tropical cyclones, however, form over tropical or subtropical water – typically between 5- 30º northern or southern latitude. Their primary source of energy is the release of latent heat. Latent heat is released through condensation, i.e. it is the energy stored by evaporated water. Th t “t i l l ” i th i t l i l t btb d th t The term “tropical cyclone” is the generic, meteorological term but based on the storm’s area of origin, they are also referred to as hurricanes, typhoons, etc. 2
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Weather disturbances that result in tropical cyclones: Tropical wave: waves in trade winds create instability in the atmosphere Upper level troughs in the tropics Decaying frontal boundary 3
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The above map indicates the places on earth where conditions for the formation of a tropical cyclone are met. Figuratively speaking, tropical cyclones generally form at the tail of the arrow (see graphic). The arrow indicates a general track. The above map and its basin delineations are no indication of point of land-falls, frequency of occurrence and even points of origination – this map is only a simplification. It is possible that storms form and occur outside of the colored basins (e.g. Hurricane Vince in 2005). 4
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Development stages are: 1. Tropical wave 2. Tropical depression 3. Tropical storm 4. Hurricane (Category 1-5) ITCZ – Intertropical Convergence Zone (convergence zone of North-East and South-East trade winds). This zone is generally visible on satellite imagery as a band of clouds (often w/ thunderstorms) near the equator. 5
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See http://www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/jetstream/tropics/tc_classification.htm Tropical cyclones are classified based on their sustained wind speeds according to the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Maximum sustained winds reflect the wind speed recorded when using a 1 minute average time, i.e. sustained winds are considered long-lasting winds. Gusts are considered short-lived winds that only occur for a few seconds. Gusts measured in a storm can exceed sustained winds by about 30%. Ex. A category 2 storm with sustained
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Hurricanes_I_Notes - 1 See

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