1.22.10 - Hooded oriole feeding from(and pollinating a...

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1 Hooded oriole feeding from (and pollinating) a century plant Review Session Bourns Hall B118, 2-1-10 (Monday) 7:40 PM to 9:00 PM Bourns Hall B118, 2-3-10 (Wednesday) 7:40 PM to 9:00 PM Midterm 2-5-10 (Friday) Material covered;1-4-10:2-3-10 What’s left……. • Nutrition, gas exchange, & transport I & II (Chapters 36, 37) • Plant control systems (chapter 39) • Photosynthesis & carbon metabolism-- cancelled • The fungi (chapter 31) Plant nutrition, gas exchange, and transport • Essential nutrients Macronutrients & micronutrients • Nitrogen assimilation Nitrogen fixation, bacterial symbiosis • Mycorrhizae fungal symbiosis • Uptake of CO 2 Diffusion between leaves and air Water loss and transpiration • Fluid transport Xylem and phloem Physiology: How organisms work A fundamental principle of physiology: all organisms must exchange materials and energy with their environments. In the next two lectures we cover the most important of these exchanges for plants.
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2 Most plants are photosynthetic autotrophs: -- obtain simple compounds (CO 2 , H 2 O, etc.) from the environment; use light energy to make carbohydrates (carbon fixation; photosynthesis ): CO 2 + H 2 O (CH 2 O)x + O 2 Light energy Plant nutrition, gas exchange, and transport Most plants are photosynthetic autotrophs: -- obtain simple compounds (CO 2 , H 2 O, etc.) from the environment; use light energy to make carbohydrates (carbon fixation; photosynthesis ) -- at night, or in non-photosynthetic parts (roots, woody stem, etc.), the ‘reverse’ process of respiration is used to make ATP: (CH 2 O)x + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Aerobic respiration ADP + P i ATP (+ heat) Plant nutrition, gas exchange, and transport Most plants are photosynthetic autotrophs: -- obtain simple compounds (CO 2 , H 2 O, etc.) from the environment; use light energy to make carbohydrates (carbon fixation; photosynthesis ) -- at night, or in non-photosynthetic parts (roots, stem, etc.), the ‘reverse’ process of respiration is used to make ATP: (CH 2 O)x + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Aerobic respiration ADP + P i ATP (+ heat) Plant nutrition, gas exchange, and transport So to run photosynthesis and respiration, plants need access to water, CO 2 , and O 2 . Essential nutrients for plants In addition to CO 2 , O 2 , and H 2 O, what materials do plants need from the environment? What are the essential elements for plants? More than 50 elements found in plants; not all are essential. Criteria for ‘essentiality’: plant cannot complete its life cycle without the element (deficiency prevents reproduction) • the element cannot be replaced by another element Two loosely-defined categories of essential elements (17 total): Macronutrients: required in relatively large quantities Micronutrients: required in relatively small quantities
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3 Essential nutrients for plants 9 Macronutrients: mainly structural • lipids, carbohydrates, cellulose, etc.: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen -- from CO 2 and water amino acids, nucleotides, hormones, etc.: nitrogen • cytoplasmic fluid solutes, etc: magnesium, calcium, potassium • ATP, ADP, nucleic acids, other compounds: phosphorus • some amino acids: sulfur 8 Micronutrients:
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1.22.10 - Hooded oriole feeding from(and pollinating a...

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