1-11-10_Plant Diversity

1-11-10_Plant Diversity - F ig . 2 8 -U N 4 F ig . 2 8 -0 2...

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1 Fig. 28-UN4 Chlorophytes Charophyceans Red algae Green algae Land plants Excavata Chromalveolata Rhizaria Archaeplastida Unikonta Fig. 28-02-2 Cyanobacterium Heterotrophic eukaryote Over the course of evolution, this membrane was lost. Red alga Green alga Primary endosymbiosis Secondary endosymbiosis Secondary endosymbiosis Secondary endosymbiosis Plastid Dinoflagellates Apicomplexans Stramenopiles Plastid Euglenids Chlorarachniophytes ‘Protist’ evolution Archaeplastida evolution Red Algae Red algae are reddish in color due to an accessory pigment call phycoerythrin • Red algae are usually multicellular; the largest are seaweeds • Red algae are the most abundant large algae in coastal waters of the tropics Fig. 28-19a Bonnemaisonia hamifera 8 mm
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2 Fig. 28-19b Dulse ( Palmaria palmata ) 20 cm Fig. 28-19c Nori. The red alga Porphyra is the source of a traditional Japanese food. The seaweed is grown on nets in shallow coastal waters. The harvested seaweed is spread on bamboo screens to dry. Paper-thin, glossy sheets of nori make a mineral-rich wrap for rice, seafood, and vegetables in sushi. Green Algae Green algae are named for their grass-green chloroplasts • Plants are descended from the green algae • The two main groups are chlorophytes and charophyceans • Most chlorophytes live in fresh water, although many are marine • Other chlorophytes live in damp soil, as symbionts in lichens, or in snow Green Algae
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3 Fig. 28-20 Fig. 28-21a (a) Ulva, or sea lettuce 2 cm Fig. 28-21b (b) Caulerpa, an intertidal chloro- phyte Today we begin our examination of plant diversity; focus is on diversity, form, and function of land plants. Trends in plant complexity: origins of land plants Eukaryotic common ancestor Rhodophyta (red algae) Chlorophyta (green algae) Charophycean Embryophytes algae (land plants, kingdom Plantae ) Mainly in marine/freshwater habitats
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4 Charophycean algae Today we begin our examination of plant diversity; focus is on diversity, form, and function of land plants. Eukaryotic common ancestor Rhodophyta (red algae) Chlorophyta (green algae) Charophycean Embryophytes algae (land plants, kingdom Plantae ) Trends in plant complexity: origins of land plants Mainly in marine/freshwater habitats Attributes of land plants in common with their Charophycean algal ancestors: photosynthetic autotrophs : chlorophyll and the photosynthetic apparatus use solar energy to “ fix ” carbon from CO 2 and water cell walls made of cellulose (and other materials) : rigid wall gives support and allows plant cells to ‘use’ hydrostatic pressure, unlike animal cells structural and biochemical details (no need to memorize ) : similarities in chloroplast organization • photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b; carotenes) • phragmoplast (structure used to make cell walls in cell division) • peroxisome enzymes (present in Charophyceans, absent in other algae)
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1-11-10_Plant Diversity - F ig . 2 8 -U N 4 F ig . 2 8 -0 2...

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