3.03.10 - Acquisition of energy and materials: Acquisition...

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Acquisition of energy and materials: nutrition Animal nutrients often classified as: macronutrients (needed in relatively large quantities): energy sources and building materials (structural) proteins (essential and non-essential amino acids) lipids (some essential fatty acids) carbohydrates (none essential in mammals) micronutrients (needed in relatively small quantities): often catalytic, some structural inorganic minerals organic vitamins Acquisition of energy and materials: nutrition Macronutrients : proteins, lipids, carbohydrates source of chemical potential energy building blocks for synthesis of new tissue Some essential (critical for life); others are not No essential carbohydrates (all can be synthesized from proteins or lipids). Of the twenty amino acids used to make protein, 8-10 are essential (same for most animals). The others (nonessential) can be synthesized from the essential amino acids. Some lipids (unsaturated fatty acids with >1 double bond) are essential for membrane lipids, some storage fats, certain hormone precursors, etc. Acquisition of energy and materials: nutrition Micronutrients -- Two general categories: inorganic minerals organic vitamins (synthesized by plants or other organisms) Roughly 15-17 mineral elements needed by humans (and other animals) Some in relatively large quantities (calcium, sodium, potassium, sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, iron) -- structural Some in small quantities -- catalytic (enzyme cofactors, etc.) All can be harmful or toxic if consumed in excessive amounts Acquisition of energy and materials: nutrition About 13 vitamins are currently known to be necessary used for a wide range of functions, but mainly catalytic (enzyme cofactors, etc.) two general categories: water soluble (B, C, niacin, folic acid, etc.) lipid soluble (A, D, E, K) Micronutrients -- Two general categories: inorganic minerals organic vitamins (synthesized by plants or other organisms)
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Acquisition of energy and materials: nutrition Lack of sufficient caloric intake (less chemical potential energy obtained than is necessary) is undernourishment (a.k.a. starvation if the condition persists) Lack of adequate amounts of essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, or minerals in the diet results in deficiency diseases (malnourishment ). Examples: Kwashiorkor (insufficient
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2010 for the course BIO Bio 5b taught by Professor Chappel/douhan during the Winter '10 term at UC Riverside.

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3.03.10 - Acquisition of energy and materials: Acquisition...

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