nps43F5 - 1 Plants Animals Fungi Eukaryotic Archaeplastida...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Plants Animals Fungi Eukaryotic Archaeplastida Unikonts ‘supergroups’ DNA sequence phylogeny- trophic level- heterotrophs (animals & fungi) versus autotrophs (most plants)- The molecule Chitin is found in fungi (cell walls) and in animals (exoskeleton of insects/mollusks) and cellulose is present in plants (cell wall) Eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that obtain nutrients by absorption and reproduce primarily by spores. What are fungi? Grow as filaments (hyphae), collectively referred to as Mycelium Spores (sexual and asexual) Very active metabolism at growing tips - resources move to older portions of the ‘thallus’ (body) of the fungus Mycelium is composed of individual threads called hyphae 2 Fruiting bodies Fungi obtain nutrients from living or dead organisms Saprotrophic fungi Use dead plant or animal remains Parasitic fungi Utilize living plants or animals Beneficial fungi Many of the mushrooms form an association with tree roots called mycorrhizae 3 Fig. 31-5-1 Spores Spore-producing structures GERMINATION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mycelium Key Heterokaryotic (unfused nuclei from different parents) Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) Fig. 31-5-3 Spores Spore-producing structures GERMINATION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mycelium Key Heterokaryotic (unfused nuclei from different parents) Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage Zygote Spores GERMINATION MEIOSIS Fig. 31-11 Chytrids (1,000 species) Zygomycetes (1,000 species) Hyphae 25 µ m Glomeromycetes (160 species) Fungal hypha Ascomycetes (65,000 species) Basidiomycetes (30,000 species) Endomycorrhizae Fungal Taxonomy 600 500 400 300 200 100 Common molds filamentous Asc yeasts basal asco Mushroom group Glomas hyphae Septate hyphae Clamp connections, Mushrooms Basidia Asci, conidia Cambrian Ordovician Silurian Devonian Carbon. Permian Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Tertiary zoospores (Mya) Asco Basid Chytrid Glomero Berbee & Taylor, 1996 Chytrids Chytrids (phylum Chytridiomycota) are found in freshwater and terrestrial habitats They can be decomposers, parasites, or mutualists Chytrids are unique among fungi in having flagellated spores, called zoospores 4 Chytrids- the bad ones! Flagellum Chytrids- the good ones! Anaerobic ‘Rumen’ fungi - found in the stomachs of many animal herbivores (degrades plant material) Ascomycetes Ascomycetes (phylum Ascomycota) live in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats The phylum is defined by production of sexual spores in saclike asci (sac fungi) , usually contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps Ascomycetes vary in size and complexity from unicellular yeasts to elaborate cup fungi and morels 5...
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2010 for the course BIO Bio 5b taught by Professor Chappel/douhan during the Winter '10 term at UC Riverside.

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nps43F5 - 1 Plants Animals Fungi Eukaryotic Archaeplastida...

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