npsF6E9 - Organization of the plant body Growth form (body...

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1 Growth form (“body plan”) of plants is highly variable due to trophic specialization -- green green plants can fix carbon via photosynthesis ( autotrophs ) Organization of the plant body Rafflesia arnoldi , a root parasite -- and the world’s biggest flower (native to Indonesia) Growth form (“body plan”) of plants is highly variable due to trophic specialization -- green plants can fix carbon via photosynthesis ( autotrophs ) -- some plants are parasitic or “feed” on organic debris Organization of the plant body Plants without chlorophyll? • >400 species belonging to 11 different plant families do not produce chlorophyll How do plants without chlorophyll obtain food? Monotropa uniflora “Indian pipe”
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2 Monotropoid mycorrhizae Monotropa (Indian pipe) is a member of the family Ericaceae (Heath family) that lacks chlorophyll Seeds germinate poorly, require external source of carbohydrates provided by fungal symbiont ( Suillus , Rhizopogon , Russula , Boletus ) Fungus provides link to photosynthetic host (tree) Growth form (“body plan”) of plants is highly variable due to trophic specialization -- green green plants can fix carbon via photosynthesis ( autotrophs ) -- some plants are parasitic or “feed” on organic debris life history: longevity, frequency of reproduction, etc. -- annual plants grow, reproduce once, and die quickly (yearly, or even more rapidly) -- perennial plants have long lives and reproduce repeatedly ecological specialization and habitat : trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes (plants that grow on tree limbs), etc. However, most plants have common features of the “body plan”: • overall body organization (major organs) • tissue systems • growth centers Organization of the plant body Organization of the plant body Plants have the same structural hierarchy as animals: Body is made of organs , which are built from different tissues , which in turn are made of different cell types . Three or four major organs: roots, stems, and leaves ( and flowers) Two growth ‘systems’: Shoot system: acquires light and CO 2 for photosynthesis; produces organic building blocks and energy; reproduction Root system: provides all nutrients except CO 2 , and support • These let plants exploit two different environments, air and soil
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3 Vascular tissue Root system Flower Terminal bud (shoot apex) Node (leaf or branch attachment point) internode Terminal bud of branch Axillary bud Vegetative branch (no flowers) petiole Blade of leaf Lateral roots Shoot system ( stems , leaves, etc. ) Taproot (mainly in ‘dicots’) The plant body: Organs Flower Terminal bud (shoot apex) Node (leaf or branch attachment point) internode Terminal bud of branch Axillary bud Vegetative branch (no flowers) petiole Blade of leaf Lateral roots Root system Other modifications of leaves and stem: tubers (storage) stolon (“runners”: asexual reproduction) bulbs (underground shoot with leaves and stem) rhizomes (stems) cactus pads (stems) and spines (leaves) • leaves used for flower enhancement The plant body: Organs Shoot system
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npsF6E9 - Organization of the plant body Growth form (body...

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