LectureNote3 - Transition metals and coordination chemistry...

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1 Transition metals and coordination chemistry Show the periodic table (oxidation states and electron configurations) Physical properties: (1) metallic luster (2) high electrical and thermal conductivity (3) wide range of melting points (W: 3400 o C, Hg: <25 o C) (4) hardness (5) wide range of reactivity towards O 2 (forming oxides) (Fe reacts easily with O 2 while coinage metals do not react with O 2 )
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2 78 Pt 4f 14 5d 9 6s 1 77 Ir 4f 14 5d 7 6s 2 76 Os 4f 14 5d 6 6s 2 75 Re 4f 14 5d 5 6s 2 74 W 4f 14 5d 4 6s 2 73 Ta 4f 14 5d 3 6s 2 72 Hf 4f 14 5d 2 6s 2 57 La 5d 1 6s 2 45 Pd 4d 10 45 Rh 4d 8 5s 1 44 Ru 4d 7 5s 1 43 Tc 4d 5 5s 2 42 Mo 4d 5 5s 1 41 Nb 4d 4 5s 1 40 Zr 4d 2 5s 2 39 Y 4d 1 5s 2 28 Ni 3d 8 4s 2 27 Co 3d 7 4s 2 26 Fe 3d 6 4s 2 25 Mn 3d 5 4s 2 24 Cr 3d 5 4s 1 23 V 3d 3 4s 2 22 Ti 3d 2 4s 2 21 Sc 3d 1 4s 2 [Ar] [Kr] [Xe] To write the electronic structure for Co 2+ : [Ar] 3d 7 Co 2+ [Ar] 3d 7 4s 2 Co To write the electronic structure for V 3+ : [Ar] 3d 2 V 3+ [Ar] 3d 3 4s 2 V
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3 Titanium (0.6% by mass of Earth's crust) Titanium metal - characterized by low density, high strength, chemical inertness- used as a structural element in high-demand uses such as jet engines, high-performance bicycles, etc. Chromium (Cr) - (greek c hroma, color) Cr(0) (metal) is used for making steel. Cr(VI) and Cr(III) are used for chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning, and wood preserving. Chromium enters the air, water, and soil mostly as Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Cr(III) strongly attaches to soil, but a small amount can dissolve in water and move deeper to underground water reservoirs - pollutant. The colors of many gemstones come from Cr(III) impurities Ruby: Cr 3+ in Al 2 O 3
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4 Large crystals of copper sulfate The Copper(II) sulfate salt exists as a series of compounds that differ in their degree of hydration . The anhydrous form is a pale green or gray-white powder, whereas the pentahydrate, the most commonly encountered salt, is bright blue.
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5 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913 Alfred Werner (University of Zurich, Switzerland) "in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry“ Prior to Werner's work, it was not known how the atoms in a molecule of the chemical formula [Pt(NH 3 ) 2 Cl 2 ] were connected.
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