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developmentalchpt42010 - The Beginnings of Life P r enatal...

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Unformatted text preview: The Beginnings of Life P r enatal, bir th and infant Pr development d evelopment D iffer ent Phases a P hase 1: Ger minal - conception to Phase day 10 d ay a Phase 2: I mplantation - day 10-14 a P hase 3: Embr yo Phase - w eek 3 Phase to 8 to a P hase 4: F etal Phase - final 7 Phase months m onths P r enatal D evelopment: Per iod of the Zygote P er P r enatal D evelopment: Per iod of the Embr yo P er D iffer ent T er minology a a a a a a Amniotic Sac/Amniotic F lu Placenta U mbilical cor d N eur al tube Age of viability Sensitive Per iod Pr enatal Envir onment Pr T er atology a T er atogens r efer to agents that cause abnor mal development in the fetus a bnor • T er atogens can have physical effects ( malfor mation) or psychological effects (intelligence, temper ament, activity) ( intelligence, a C lasses of ter atogens include Classes • • • • • D r ugs I nfectious diseases M other ’s age Poor nutr ition O ther envir onmental agents Other T er atogens E ffects w or st w hen Effects for ming/gr ow ing f or a N ot all fetuses affected equally a D iffer ent ter atogens can cause same defect same a M or e exposur e = higher har m a Pater nal ter atogens exist a E ffects can be mediated by Effects postnatal envir onment p ostnatal T ypes of T er atogens Str eet D r ugs B abies of dr ug-addicted Babies m other s ar e b or n addicted and a r e lik ely to have developmental pr oblems d evelopmental T her apeutics D r ugs such as t halidomide may i nduce abnor malities a bnor Caffeine Some r isk is associated w ith Some caffeine caffeine N icotine C an affect gr ow th, incr ease Can r isk of p r ematur e deliver y d eliver Alcohol C an lead to F etal Alcohol Can Syndr ome Syndr Envir onmental M er cur y, lead, and PCBs N atur al T er atogens a N utr ition Poor • P oor pr enatal nutr ition r esults in u nfavor able development, low br ain w eight, and higher r ates of spontaneous abor tion a bor Str ess -P r enatal anxiety and str ess exper ienced by Pr expectant moms has been cor r elated w ith l ater behaviour al pr oblems and cognitive deficiencies in infants/childr en d eficiencies Par ental Age -C hildbear ing at an advanced age poses a r isk Childbear Par ental Age Effects P ar 3 stages of bir th stages a F ir st stage labour : contr actions, baby’s head is at cer vix b aby’s a Second stage labour : D eliver y a T hir d stage labour : expulsion of after bir th a fter a A ssessment: Agpar (assesses Assessment: i mmediate condition) (pg. 113); N BAS (assesses potential br ain damage days after bir th) d amage Societal/Cultur al Appr oaches to Childbir th A ppr a M edication a C ultur al var iations: major ity Cultur bor n at home in “natur al” sitting/ b or squatting positions a C ultur al D iffer ences in infant Cultur mor tality p.110 m or a M edical M odels a N atur al M odels a M or e r ecently - a combination of Bir th Complications B ir a Anoxia a Br eech position a RH blood a U mbilical cor d a P r eter m infants/low bir th w eight: Pr r espir ator y pr oblems, i nter ventions, long ter m consequences consequences P r enatal/Bir th C omplications and Behaviour al Outcomes B ehaviour a L ow er intellect a L ow er social development a Physical impair ments a M or e r ecently, AD D , AD H D , conduct disor der , anxiety, d epr ession, negative affect, hyper activity, cr iminal conduct h yper Reflexes & Sleep Patter ns R eflexes a a a a a Reflex: automatic r esponse to stimulis Sur vival Reflexes: Adaptive pur poses Sur ( br eathing, eye blink , r ooting, suck ing, sw allow ing p.114 suck P r imitive Reflexes: D isappear w ithin Pr 1st y ear – thought to be r emnants of evolutionar y histor y (babinsk i, palmar gr asp, mor o, sw imming, stepping) gr Sleep patter ns var y - less REM Sleep autostimulation theor y a utostimulation SI D S - sleep disor der ? P.116 Cr ying & Soothability Cr a a a C r ying – pr imar y means to Cr communicate needs/adaptive, declines a s CN S develops, may signal health p r oblems (e.g. cr y of malnour ished, d r ug addicted infants differ ent fr om nor mal) n or Soothing - D iffer ent soothing Soothing t echniques (r ock ing, humming, sw addling) sw I ndividual & cultur al differ ences exist ...
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