DevelopmentalChpt52010 - Physical Development Physical How...

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Unformatted text preview: Physical Development Physical How the brain and body develop Child’s Growth Child’s a Rapid Rapid in first 2 years eg 19 to 32 inches, 7 to 22 pounds inches, a Development in a cephalocaudal Development direction and proximodistal direction a Individual variations: physically and Individual cognitively cognitively a Cultural variations: Heredity, Cultural environment, disease, and emotional climate climate Brain Development Brain a a a a a a “Soft Spot” allows for the rapid brain Soft growth that occurs within first 2 years (25% to 75%) (25% Synapses: connective spaces between Synapses: cells cells Neurons: cells that receive and transmit Neurons: neural impulses neural Glia: nourishes neurons Synaptogenesis: formation of synaptic Synaptogenesis: connections between neurons connections Plasticity: cells are responsive to effects Plasticity: Areas of Brain Areas a Brain Brain stem & Mid brain: control consciousness, biological functions, reflexes reflexes a Cerebum & Cerebral cortex: control Cerebum learning, thinking, language learning, a Primary motor areas: Control simple Primary motor activities motor a Primary sensory areas: Control Primary senses senses Brain Growth Brain a a a Myelinization: formation of protective Myelinization: sheath around neurons -allows for transmission of neural impulses. Cerebral Lateralization: Involves Cerebral specialized functions in left vs. right sides of cerebral hemispheres of Brain developing right through to Brain adolescence (which explains increase in attention spans, info processing) attention Psychological Implications of Physical Growth of a Influences Influences on parents e.g. child is more independent more a Child feels more bold, sociable, a Children develop through to Children adolescence - become stronger, fine tune motor skills, a Cultural variations in growth see text Puberty Puberty a Adolescent Adolescent growth spurt = sexual maturation maturation a Girls sexual maturation = 9/10 a Boys sexual maturation = 11/12 a Secular Trend: Earlier sexual Secular maturation and bigger bodies maturation a Causes: pituitary gland secretes Causes: hormones, nutrition, stress hormones, a Timing of Puberty Timing a For For boys: early = confident, athletic, popular, late = inferior, socially inadequate inadequate girls: early = less outgoing, less popular, anxiety, depression popular, a For For Causes/Correlates of Physical Development Physical a Biological Mechanisms: a Sequencing: universal/consistent Sequencing: maturation maturation a Individual genotypes: affect patterns Individual of growth of a Hormonal Influences a Nutrition a Social environment Nutritional Effects Nutritional a a a a a Malnutrition – approx. 20% of children Malnutrition (U.S.) - severe cognitive implications (U.S.) Severe undernutrition in 1st five years = Severe marasmus & kwashiorkor marasmus Catch-up growth is possible if not Catch-up prolonged or severe prolonged Eating disorders: anorexia nervosa (as Eating high as 5%), often quiet and reserved & bulimia (as high as 3%), often extroverted bulimia Obesity: Severe social implications, 14% Obesity: for boys & 12 % for girls for Other Effects on Growth Other a Illnesses: Illnesses: effect growth, and cognitive abilities cognitive a Emotional Stress/Lack of Affection: Emotional Failure to thrive = appears first 18 mths. Often as a result of noncaring or abuse. Deprivation dwarfism = appears between 2 - 15 years. Emotional deprivation, stress, lack of affection affection ...
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