developmentalchpt112010 - Emotions Emotions Social and...

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Unformatted text preview: Emotions Emotions Social and Emotional Development Chapter 11 Expressing Emotions Expressing Emotions s s s Emotions are present at birth (distress, contentment, disgust) Primary emotions emerge around 3 mths­ emerge at same age in all cultures, biological (anger, joy, surprise Secondary emotions emerge in 2nd year ­ self­conscious emotions (embarrassment, shame, guilt, envy) Emotion Regulation Emotion Regulation Infants as young as 7 mths follow emotional display rules s At first depend on caregiver to regulate emotions ­ eventually develop own strategies s Socialization of emotions ­ maintain social harmony and avoid peer and adult disapproval s Temperament Temperament Individual’s tendency to respond to environment ­ building block of adult personality s Typically in infants we assess temperament by: activity level, irritability/negative affect, soothability, fearfulness/wariness, sociability s Influences on Temperament Influences on Temperament Heredity: many are genetically influenced (e.g. aggression, shyness) s Environment: home environment/parenting s Stability of temperament: Most findings suggest temperament stable (e.g. inhibition) s “Types” of Temperaments Thomas & Chess s Easy: Positive, relaxed 40% s Difficult: Irritable, active 10% s Slow­to­warm: Slightly negative, moody 15% s Goodness of fit model s Cultural differences s Attachment Attachment Mutual, reciprocal affection and proximity s Phases of Attachment: Preattachment (0­8wks), Attachment in the making (6wks­7mths), True Attachment (7mths –18 months), Reciprocal (18 months on) s Theories of Attachment Theories of Attachment s s s s Psychoanalytic: Instinctual, survival, need to be fed Learning: Learn to respond to caregiver that responds to their needs and provides a variety of comfort Cognitive Development: Attachment develops later when infant realizes object permanence Ethological: Attachment for adaptive purposes Attachment Fears Attachment Fears Stranger anxiety: wariness of unfamiliar person (8­10mths) s Separation anxiety: fear of being separated from familiar person (6­ 18mths) s Causes: ethological viewpoint = natural clues to danger, cognitive viewpoint = development of cognitive/perceptive skills s Assessing Attachment Assessing Attachment Ainsworth’s Strange Situation procedure s Secure attachment: 65% s Resistant attachment: 10% s Avoidant attachment: 20% s Disorganized/disoriented attachment: 5% s Cultural differences s Quality of Caregiving: Caregiving hypothesis: s Responsive, sensitive caregiving = secure attachment s Inconsistent parenting=resistant attachment s Impatient/unresponsive = avoidant attachment s Abusive/neglectful = disorganized attachment s Caregivers influences on Caregivers influences on attachment Risk Factors to Being an Risk Factors to Being an Insensitive Caregiver Depressed s Unloved, abused as children s Unplanned pregnancies s Poor health s Poverty s Spousal relations s Intervention works! s Infant Influences on Infant Influences on Attachment Temperament hypothesis (Kagan): attachment behaviour reflects infants own temperament s Doesn’t explain why intervention works s A combination s Early Effects on Early Effects on Social/Emotional Development s Four main areas of early experience have been identified as effecting later social, emotional and cognitive development – Early daycare studies examine the effects of mothers working outside the home and the security of child attachment – Childhood trauma (war) has been associated with later psychiatric disorders – Abuse may result in lack of secure attachment and further hasnegative effects on social and cognitive development – Chronic hospitalization has been associated with adverse outcomes s s s Peer interactions, social skills, self­esteem, social withdrawal, academic success,adult relationships Why: Internal working model: people interpret later events through cognitive representations they developed of themselves and other people while infants. In other words, parents have a model developed through: memories of childhood and attachment experience, which affect their current view of self and others influence their infant’s attachment – Secure, Dismissive, Preoccupied What does attachment What does attachment predict? s s s s First 3/6mths appear “normal” Institutionalized infants studies: the longer the worse. Under developed in all aspects, behavioural problems, reactive attachment disorder Maternal deprivation hypothesis: develop abnormally because of lack of maternal warmth, love Social stimulation hypothesis: develop abnormally because of lack of sustained interactions with one or several responsive The Unattached Infant The Unattached Infant So What Happens So What Happens Learned helplessness: stop trying to elicit responses, stop responding s Recovery possible ­ especially if less than 2 years, not abused, and placed in highly educated and higher SES families s However: lingering deficiencies and reactive attachment disorders of later adoptees suggest infancy may be a s Should Mom Work? Should Mom Work? 32% have a primary caregiver other than a parent s Does daycare hurt? Depends on quality s Variables that influence: mother’s job satisfaction, length of maternity leave, paternal involvement, other family stresses s ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2010 for the course 10974 PSYC 2500 taught by Professor kim o'neil during the Winter '10 term at Carleton CA.

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