Lecture 7. Sensation and Perception (Part I posted)

Lecture 7. Sensation and Perception (Part I posted) -...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Psychology PSYC 1001, Section E Wednesday, Oct. 15, 2008 Sensation & Perception (Part I) Todays class (Objectives) Heredity and Behaviour (Ch. 3) Evolutionary Psychology (Ch. 3) Fundamental Principles of Psychophysics Sensation vs. Perception, Thresholds, JNDs, Fechners Law, Noise, Subliminal Perception The Visual System Stimulus Properties: Light Anatomy of The Eye Information Processing: The Retina Basic Principles of Genetics Genotype: The full set of all the genes than an individual possesses Is fixed (from conception) Phenotype: Observable characteristics The appearance of an individual May change over time (Environmental modification) Polygenic Inheritance: Characteristics are influenced by more than one pair of genes Most human characteristics are polygenic traits Research Methods: Investigating the Influence of Heredity Nature (genetics) vs. Nurture (environment) No true experiments, only correlational designs (wrt humans) Vs. Selective breeding used in animal studies Three main correlational research methods : Family studies Twin studies Adoption studies Research Methods: Family Studies Assess hereditary influence by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble one another on a specific trait Does it run in the family? Logic If heredity affects the trait, then Blood relatives should be phenotypically similar Closer relatives should evidence more similarity than more distant relatives Family Studies A. First-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients have an elevated risk of developing a schizophrenic disorder A. HOWEVER, Genetic similarity AND environmental similarity BOTH tend to be greater for closer relatives Research Methods: Twin Studies Assess hereditary influence by comparing the resemblance of MZ twins and DZ twins wrt a specific trait Logic MZ twins share more genetic kinship than DZ twins (100% vs. 50% genetic relatedness) But, MZ twins and DZ twins normally develop under equally similar environmental conditions Thus, If heredity affects the trait, then Sets of MZ twins should exhibit more similarity on the trait than do sets of DZ twins Twin Studies A. MZ twins tend to be more similar to each other than DZ twins on measures of intelligence and extraversion A. HOWEVER, the fact that MZ twins are FAR from identical on these measures indicates that environmental factors also play a role Research Methods: Adoption Studies Assess hereditary influence by examining the resemblance between adopted children and both their biological and their adoptive parents Logic Adopted children share a genetic kinship with their biological parents but not their adoptive parents But, adopted children share a common environment with their adoptive parents but not their biological parents Thus, If heredity affects the trait, then Adopted children should resemble their biological parents on the trait (even though they were not raised by them) Research Methods: Genetic Mapping...
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2010 for the course 32611 PSYC 1001 taught by Professor Darcylitteljohn during the Fall '08 term at Carleton CA.

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Lecture 7. Sensation and Perception (Part I posted) -...

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