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Lecture 14. Learning Part II posted

Lecture 14. Learning Part II posted - Introduction to...

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Introduction to Psychology PSYC 1001, Section E Wednesday, November 12, 2008 Learning, Part II (Ch. 6)
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Today’s class (Objectives) Ch. 6: Learning (Part I) Operant Conditioning
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Learning… What is it? Learning: A relatively durable change in behaviour, thoughts or feelings as a result of experience Most organisms are capable of learning – it is not an exclusively human process Animal research: Experimental control! Many principles of learning transcend species Conditioning: A specific kind of learning that involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism’s environment
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Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning: A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response that was originally elicited (drawn forth) by another stimulus
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Classical Conditioning: Processes Acquisition: The initial stage of learning something Stimulus contiguity novel, unusual/unique, or especially intense stimuli Extinction: The gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency Spontaneous recovery: The reappearance of an extinguished response (CR) after a period of non- exposure to the CS Stimulus Generalization: When conditioning generalizes to additional stimuli that are similar to the CS Stimulus Discrimination: Conditioning does not generalize to…
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Classical Conditioning: Processes
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Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning: A form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences Principle of reinforcement: Organisms tend to repeat those responses that are followed by favorable consequences Thus, response tendency has been strengthened Reinforcement Contingencies: The circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers
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Operant vs. Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning UCS elicits UCR [Stimuli elicit Responses] CS elicits CR [New stimuli elicit Responses] Operant Conditioning Responses lead to Consequences Consequences influence Future Responses Cues (Consequences) emit Responses lead to Consequences
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Operant Conditioning: Basic Processes Acquisition: The initial stage of learning some new pattern of responding Conditioned to emit (send forth) an operant response Shaping: A gradual process whereby closer and closer approximations of a desired response (i.e., operant response) are reinforced Necessary when an organism does not, on its own, emit the desired response (e.g., Skinner box) Pigeon ping-pong
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Comet , the “world’s most intelligent fish”
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Operant Conditioning: Basic Processes Extinction: Gradual weakening and disappearance of a response tendency Operant Because the response is no longer followed by a reinforcer Thus, the operant response tendency is weakened Classical Because the CS is repeatedly presented alone (without UCS) Extinction will begin whenever a previously available reinforcement is stopped (i.e., change reinforcement contingencies)
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