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Lecture 15. Learning (III)posted

Lecture 15. Learning (III)posted - Introduction to...

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Introduction to Psychology PSYC 1001, Section E Wednesday, November 12, 2008 Learning, Part III (Ch. 6) Memory, Part I (Ch. 7)
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Lecture Schedule: November MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SAT/SUN 29 1/ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8/9 10 11 12 13 14 15/16 Lecture #15: Learning (Part III) Textbook: Chapter 6 17 18 Lecture #16: Memory (Part I) Textbook: Chapter 7 19 20 21 22/23 Lecture #17: Memory (Part II) Textbook: Chapter 7 24 25 Lecture #18: Memory (Part III); Thought & Language (Part I) Textbook: Chapters 7 & 8 26 27 28 29/30
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MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SAT/SUN Lecture #19: Thought & Language (Part II) Textbook: Chapter 8 Practice Exam: Will be posted 1 2 REVIEW CLASS (Theatre B, Southam Hall; 8:30-10am) Take-up practice exam & any questions 3 Final Exam Period Begins PSYC 1001 E: Final Exam Covers: Ch.5-8 100 MC Qs, 50% of final grade 4 5 6/7 8 9 10 11 12 13/14 15 16 17 18 19 Final Exam Period Ends 20/21 22 23 24 25 26 27/28 29 30 31 December (Final Exam Location TBD)… http://www2.carleton.ca/academics/schedules.php) Drop-in office hours: 10:30- 12noon; 1-4pm (A525 Loeb Bldg)
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Today’s class (Objectives) Ch. 6: Learning (Part III) Conditioning: Changing Directions Observational Learning
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Classical & Operant Conditioning Response Reinforcement / Punishment Leads to Increases / Decreases Discriminative Stimulus (cue)
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Conditioning: Changing Directions Traditional assumption: Laws of conditioning exist and have great generality Natural Limits: (1) Registering stimuli, (2) Response repertoire We know now… There are limits to such generality Biological Constraints: Limitations on an organism’s potential for learning imposed by said organism’s biological heritage
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Biological Constraints: Instinctive Drift Instinctive Drift: A biological constraint on learning that occurs when an animal’s innate response tendencies interfere with conditioning processes Brelands: “Instinct-related interference” (wide variety of species) Racoons won’t let go of coins despite availability of reinforcers (interference from innate food-washing behaviour)
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Biological Constraints on Conditioning Conditioned Taste Aversion: Learning to avoid food that makes you nauseous
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Conditioned Taste Aversion CS Food consumed prior to treatment UCS Chemotherapy Nausea UCR CR
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Conditioned Taste Aversion Established via classical conditioning… but violates several basic principles of conditioning Lengthy delay between the CS (sauce) and the UCS (the flu) Should prevent learning from occurring, yet the conditioning is strong This aversion emerges (i.e., is learned) after only one trial (one pairing of the CS and UCS) Normally, conditioning requires multiple trials The learned association is highly selective: Only food (and/or odour) become CSs eliciting nausea – not other stimuli in the environment Violates the assumption of the equivalence of associations
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Conditioned Taste Aversion CS Saccharin-flavoured water UCS Radiation Nausea UCR CR John Garcia (1960s; The Garcia Effect)
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