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Lecture 16. Memory (I)posted

Lecture 16. Memory (I)posted - Introduction to Psychology...

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Introduction to Psychology PSYC 1001, Section E Wednesday, November 19, 2008 Memory, Part I (Ch. 7)
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Today’s class (Objectives) Ch. 7: Memory (Part I) Encoding Storage Important Reminder: The final exam will cover material from Ch. 5, 6, 7, and 8 (up to and including p. 325 ) & the accompanying lecture material (slides) – You are not responsible for the rest of Ch. 8 (i.e., problem-solving & decision-making)
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Mirror Neurons Mirror neuron: Fires (discharges an AP – or series of APs) both when an animal acts itself and when the animal observes/watches the same action performed by another animal First observed in primates (e.g., macaques) Must be a biologically-relevant action (e.g., reaching for food vs. bouncing ball) May be neural basis for observational learning
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Mirror Neurons Humans: We have a mirror neuron system (MNS), as revealed by relevant fMRI and PET scans The human MNS includes (most importantly) brain regions in the prefrontal and parietal cortices
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Mirror Neurons Main purported functions of MNS: Action understanding Imitation Intention understanding MNS codes for the intention associated with an action (e.g., drinking from a cup vs. cleaning the cup – see next slide) Empathy Emotion understanding – activity within the MNS is similar when we experience an emotion (e.g., fear) and when we observe that emotion being expressed by another
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MNS & Autism Theory: There is a causative link between MNS deficiency and autism No real consensus here, but the main features ostensibly include a lack of empathy, impaired imitative abilities, and difficulties with social interactions) Supporting Evidence (selected points) : EEG recordings (considered an index of MNS activity) reveal significant differences between typically developing children and children with autism When imitating facial expressions, children with autism display less activity (as revealed by fMRI and PET scans) in purported MNS brain regions than typically developing children
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Mirror Neurons & Autism? Oberman et al. (2005) EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectral disorders. Brain Res. Cogn. Brain Res. , 24 (2):190-8 Light grey bars (left): Observe bouncing ball (non-biologically relevant action) Medium grey bars (middle): Observe hand-reaching for food (biologically relevant) Dark grey bars (right): Perform hand-reaching for food action
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Mirror Neurons & Autism? Dapretto et al. (2006) Understanding emotions in others: mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders. Nature Neuroscience , 9 (1):28-30 Typically developing children Children with autism spectrum disorders Task: Imitate these faces…
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Human Memory: What is it? The retention of information across various intervals of time The means by which individuals draw on past knowledge in order to use such knowledge in the present (and to predict the future) The dynamic mechanisms associated with the retention and retrieval of information - Gray, P. (2002) Psychology (4 th Ed.)
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Human Memory: Some Basics Memory involves mental processes
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