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Lecture 131. Learning Part I.posted

Lecture 131. Learning Part I.posted - Introduction to...

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Introduction to Psychology PSYC 1001, Section E Monday, November 10, 2008 Learning, Part I (Ch. 6)
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Today’s class (Objectives) Ch. 6: Learning (Part I) Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning
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Learning? (Y/N) A worm is placed in a T maze. The left arm of the maze is brightly lit and dry; the right arm is dim and moist. On the first 10 trials, the worm turns right 7 times. On the next 10 trials, the worm turns right all 10 times. A previously psychotic patient is given Dr. Phil’s patented invasive surgery and no longer exhibits any psychotic behaviours. After 30 years of smoking two packs a day, Jane throws away her cigarettes and never smokes again. An infant stops sucking its thumb. After pondering a difficult word puzzle for hours, Lee finally figures it out. From that point on, he can solve all similar problems in the time it takes him to read them. Ethel stays up late the night before the October GRE administration and consumes large quantities of licit and illicit pharmacological agents. Her score is 410. The night before the December GRE administration, she goes to bed early after a wholesome dinner and a glass of milk. Her score increases to 1210. Adapted by permission from T. Rocklin , 1987, p228.
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Learning… What is it? Learning refers to the change in a subject’s behaviour to a given situation brought about (elicited) by his (her) repeated experiences in that situation, provided that the behaviour change cannot be explained on the basis of native response tendencies, maturation, or temporary states of the subject (e.g., fatigue, drugs, etc.) Hilgard and Bower, 1975, p17
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Learning… What is it? Learning: A relatively durable change in behaviour, thoughts or feelings as a result of experience Much of your behaviour is the result of learning Acquisition of knowledge and skills; shapes personal habits Use past experience to predict the future Adapt to a rapidly changing environment Exert control over our environment Most organisms are capable of learning – it is not an exclusively human process Animal research: Experimental control! Many principles of learning transcend species
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Classical Conditioning Conditioning: A specific kind of learning that involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism’s environment Classical Conditioning: A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response that was originally elicited (drawn forth) by another stimulus Pavlov (early 1900s) – Sought to discover the conditions that produce learning Surreptitious discovery… Dogs will salivate in response to the sound of a tone
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Pavlov’s Dogs… Meat powder Salivate
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Pavlov’s Dogs… Unconditioned Association Meat powder Salivation Unconditioned Stimulus ( UCS ) Unconditioned Response ( UCR ) Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): A stimulus that unconditionally (naturally and automatically) triggers a response (i.e., without previous conditioning) Unconditioned Response (UCR): The unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (e.g., salivation when food is presented)
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Pavlov’s Dogs… Conditioning Trials Trial: Any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli
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