Review sheet for Exam 1
History of neuroscience
You should know the main steps (and missteps) along the path to the development of the
modern view of brain function, including primary discoveries and/or contributions and
approximate timeframe of Galvani, Gall, Flourens, Cajal, Dubois-Reymond, Muller,
Helmholtz, Bernard, Erlich, Langley, Hughlings Jackson, Fritsche, Hitzig, Broca,
Wernicke, Brodmann, Adrian, Marshall, Bard, and Lashley. You should be able to list
several experimental methods (e.g. cytoarchitectonic analysis, lesion studies, etc.) that
have helped advance our understanding of brain function, with an example of how they
have done so.
Ion channels and membrane potential.
Ion channels are among the most important molecules in living organisms, and certainly
in the brain. They are centrally involved in all neural signaling, including the
establishment of the resting membrane potential, and all voltage signaling on top of that.
Many drugs (and toxins) act on ion channels, often mimicking the action of endogenous
Know their range of atomic weights, the basic physical structure (i.e. be
able to draw an ion channel in schematic form), and mechanisms for selectivity. Be able
to draw a typical current trace of an ion channel opening and closing with time. Be able
to list 4 types of gating of ion channels (mechanical, …etc). Know the names of some
common blockers of the ion channels we have studied. Memorize and know how to apply
the Nernst equation at body temperature for an ion, and understand the concept
underlying the term “reversal potential”. Be able to draw and use the electrical
representation of an ion channel.
Know how to combine the effects of multiple ion