Review1 - BME 402, Spring 2010 Review sheet for Exam 1...

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BME 402, Spring 2010 Review sheet for Exam 1 History of neuroscience You should know the main steps (and missteps) along the path to the development of the modern view of brain function, including primary discoveries and/or contributions and approximate timeframe of Galvani, Gall, Flourens, Cajal, Dubois-Reymond, Muller, Helmholtz, Bernard, Erlich, Langley, Hughlings Jackson, Fritsche, Hitzig, Broca, Wernicke, Brodmann, Adrian, Marshall, Bard, and Lashley. You should be able to list several experimental methods (e.g. cytoarchitectonic analysis, lesion studies, etc.) that have helped advance our understanding of brain function, with an example of how they have done so. Ion channels and membrane potential. Ion channels are among the most important molecules in living organisms, and certainly in the brain. They are centrally involved in all neural signaling, including the establishment of the resting membrane potential, and all voltage signaling on top of that. Many drugs (and toxins) act on ion channels, often mimicking the action of endogenous neurochemicals. Know their range of atomic weights, the basic physical structure (i.e. be able to draw an ion channel in schematic form), and mechanisms for selectivity. Be able to draw a typical current trace of an ion channel opening and closing with time. Be able to list 4 types of gating of ion channels (mechanical, …etc). Know the names of some common blockers of the ion channels we have studied. Memorize and know how to apply the Nernst equation at body temperature for an ion, and understand the concept underlying the term “reversal potential”. Be able to draw and use the electrical representation of an ion channel. Know how to combine the effects of multiple ion
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Review1 - BME 402, Spring 2010 Review sheet for Exam 1...

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