Scott_Handout5-key

Scott_Handout5-key - MCB 104 Handout#5 1 Professor...

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2/26/2010 MCB 104; Handout #5 1. Professor Dernburg’s slides list six hallmarks of cancer cells. Know them. Sustained angiogenesis, self sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to antigrowth signals, tissue invasion and metastasis, limitless replicative potential, evasion of apoptosis Think about experiments you could do to see if a cell had acquired each of those hallmark properties. For example: A. You are culturing mammalian cells on a petri dish. You mutagenize the cells. How can you identify mutant cells that are no longer subject to contact inhibition? Normally, the cells will only form a monolayer (a single layer of cells) on the Petri dish. Mutants insensitive to contact inhibition will form multiple layers—you’ll see lumps that are several cells deep. B. You are studying mammalian cells, which normally undergo apoptosis in response to massive DNA damage, which can be induced by chemicals or radiation. How can you identify mutant cells that do initiate apoptosis in response to DNA damage? Irradiate the cells or add a chemical that damages DNA. Wild-type cells will die. Mutants that evade apoptosis will not die, despite the DNA damage. C. What microscopy techniques can you use to identify cells with lots of genomic instability? Visualize chromosomes. For example, you could mark each chromosome with a different color of fluorophore (e.g. chromosome 1 is green, chromosome 2 is blue, etc). This marking will make it easy to see if the cell is aneuploid. It will also make it easy to identify chromosomal rearrangements (e.g. a blue and green chromosome must have a piece of chromosome 1 fused to chromosome 2). 2. The multi-hit hypothesis holds that cancer causing mutations accumulate over time in somatic cells, until a malignant cell has such a growth advantage over its neighbors that it divides like crazy. Would a wild-type cell become cancerous as soon as it becomes immortalized (i.e. can divide and divide without senescence)? No. A wild type cell typically needs to acquire multiple mutations to become cancerous.
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