Lec_7_Biotoxins - Biotoxins Toxins Poisonous substances...

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Biotoxins
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Toxins Poisonous substances produced by microorganisms ( and Others ) toxins - primary factor - pathogenicity 220 known bacterial toxins 40% cause disease by damaging the Eukaryotic cell membrane Toxemia Toxins in the bloodstream
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Classes of Toxins by Site of Action e.g.: Neurotoxins Nerve Tissue Enterotoxins Enteric System Cytotoxins Cells Hemotoxins Blood Cells Dermatotoxins Skin Cells Hepatotoxins Liver tissue
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Toxin-Producing Organism Classes Viruses (e.g. stx phage, cytotoxins, lysins) Bacteria (e.g. endotoxins, exotoxins) Fungi (e.g. tricothecenes) Protozoa (endotoxin, phospholipase, protease) Algae (microcystins, ASP, PSP) Plants (alkaloids, tannins, cyanogenic glycosides) Higher Animals (fish, insects, snakes, frogs)
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Poisonous mushrooms The deathcap – one bite can prove fatal
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Freshwater Algal Toxins Anatoxin (e.g. Anabaena) Staggering, paralysis, gasping, convulsions, death – 200 μg/kg LD 50 Microcystin (e.g. Anabaena, Microcystis, Oscillatoria) Jaundice, shock, abdominal pain/distention. Weakness, nausea, vomiting, severe thirst, rapid/weak pulse, death – 300-600 μg/kg LD 50 Saxitoxin/Neosaxitoxin (e.g. Anaphnizomenon) Weakness, staggering, loss of muscle coordination, difficulty in swallowing, labored respiration, muscle paralysis, death, tingling around mouth or fingertips, slurred speech – 9 μg/kg LD 50 Hepatotoxin (e.g. Gleotrichia) Jaundice, abdominal pain/distention, weakness, nausea/vomiting Cytotoxin (e.g. Gleotrichia) Skin irritation, gastrointestinal upset
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Marine Algal Toxins PSP- Saxitoxins, Gonyautoxins,C-Toxins- Alexandrium (formerly Gonyaulax) spp. ASP- Domoic Acid – Pseudonitchia spp. DSP- Okadaic acid, dinophysiotoxins, pectenotoxins, and yessotoxin- Dinophysis spp. and Prorocentrum spp. Ciguatera toxin, Maitotoxin, & Scaritoxin- Gambierdiscus toxicus NSP/Brevetoxin- Karenia brevis (formerly Ptychodiscus or Gymnodinium breve) Pfiesteria-like Toxins- Three putative toxins- lipid soluble dermonectrotic toxin, lipid-soluble lethality factor, water- soluble neurotoxin
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Pfiesteria piscicida Pfiesteria piscicida - colorless, single- celled organism (dinoflagellate) Capable of 24 distinct forms depending on water characteristics, major ones: Amoeba forms Zoospores Gametes Planozygote Cyst forms
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Pfiesteria and Fish Toxic zoospores excrete toxins that drug fish and destroy skin Gametes, zoospores and planozygotes feed on substances from sores on fish Amoeba forms feed on dead fish Toxins affect liver, brain, kidney and pancreas of fish Toxins affect other aquatic life as well
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Pfiesteria Toxins and Humans Can affect humans by touching or ingesting water or breathing aerosolized water containing toxins Respiratory problems Headaches Moodiness Aching joints and muscles Disorientation Memory loss
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2010 for the course ENVH 451 taught by Professor Meschke during the Fall '09 term at University of Washington.

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Lec_7_Biotoxins - Biotoxins Toxins Poisonous substances...

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