# ch08 - Fundamentals of Microelectronics CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 CH5...

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1 Fundamentals of Microelectronics CH1 Why Microelectronics? CH2 Basic Physics of Semiconductors CH3 Diode Circuits CH4 Physics of Bipolar Transistors CH5 Bipolar Amplifiers CH6 Physics of MOS Transistors CH7 CMOS Amplifiers CH8 Operational Amplifier As A Black Box

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2 Chapter 8 Operational Amplifier as A Black Box 8.1 General Considerations 8.2 Op-Amp-Based Circuits 8.3 Nonlinear Functions 8.4 Op-Amp Nonidealities 8.5 Design Examples
CH8 Operational Amplifier as A Black Box 3 Chapter Outline

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CH8 Operational Amplifier as A Black Box 4 Basic Op Amp Op amp is a circuit that has two inputs and one output. It amplifies the difference between the two inputs. ( 29 2 1 0 in in out V V A V - =
CH8 Operational Amplifier as A Black Box 5 Inverting and Non-inverting Op Amp If the negative input is grounded, the gain is positive. If the positive input is grounded, the gain is negative.

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CH8 Operational Amplifier as A Black Box 6 Ideal Op Amp Infinite gain Infinite input impedance Zero output impedance Infinite speed
CH8 Operational Amplifier as A Black Box 7 Virtual Short Due to infinite gain of op amp, the circuit forces V in2 to be close to V in1 , thus creating a virtual short. Vin1 Vin2

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CH8 Operational Amplifier as A Black Box 8 Unity Gain Amplifier 0 0 0 1 ) ( A A V V V V A V in out out in out + = - =
CH8 Operational Amplifier as A Black Box 9 Op Amp with Supply Rails To explicitly show the supply voltages, V CC and V EE are shown. In some cases, V EE is zero.

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CH8 Operational Amplifier as A Black Box 10 Noninverting Amplifier (Infinite A 0 ) A noninverting amplifier returns a fraction of output signal thru a resistor divider to the negative input. With a high A o , V out /V in depends only on ratio of resistors, which is very precise. 2 1 1 R R V V in out + =
CH8 Operational Amplifier as A Black Box 11 Noninverting Amplifier (Finite A 0 ) The error term indicates the larger the closed-loop gain, the less accurate the circuit becomes. + - + 0 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 A R R R R V V in out

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CH8 Operational Amplifier as A Black Box 12 Extreme Cases of R 2 (Infinite A 0 ) If R 2 is zero, the loop is open and V out /V in is equal to the intrinsic gain of the op amp. If R 2 is infinite, the circuit becomes a unity-gain amplifier and V out /V in becomes equal to one.
13 Inverting Amplifier Infinite A 0 forces the negative input to be a virtual ground. 2

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## This note was uploaded on 04/05/2010 for the course EE EE taught by Professor Ee during the Spring '10 term at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology.

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ch08 - Fundamentals of Microelectronics CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 CH5...

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