In reinforcement models good outcomes reinforce the

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Unformatted text preview: 2000) found in psychology and economics literature. In reinforcement models, good outcomes reinforce the strategies used, and bad outcomes generate pressures for changes in these strategies (Erev, 1998; Hammond, 2000). Other models of learning include belief-based learning models that focus on the role of past performance and expectations of future performance as drivers for changes in strategies (Feltovich, 2000) and mixed models that use characteristics of reinforcement models and belief-based models to be able to characterize a larger variety of learning processes (Camerer and Ho, 1999; Klayman, 1984). Some learning-related research, however, points against the use of reinforcement models based 7 on outcomes, given the inherent causal attribution problem existent in linking action and outcomes (Klayman, 1988a, b). The government-centric model presented assumes that government action alone can generate the outcomes experienced. In crisis situations (either natural or manmade), however, government initiatives are just part of an orchestrated set of actions in which the general public plays a key role in generating the experienced results. Existing research explores public participation before (King, Feltey, and Susel, 1998) and after (Kasperson and Pijawka, 1985) an event occurs. Our concern in this model is with public response during the event as part of the necessary actions to create positive outcomes in the system. To address the interaction of government and public action in the creation of experienced outcomes, we propose the government-public model as an extension to our government-centric model. Figure 5 shows the additional structure included to account for public participation. Information Cue 1 Information Cue 2 Environment Information Cue 3 Information Cue 4 Information Cue 5 Government's Judgment of Situation Government's Decision Threshold Government's Action L1 Government's Perception of Outcomes Outcomes Public's Judgment Public's Action L2 of Situation Public's Perception of Outcomes L3 Public's Decision Threshold Figure 5 Government-Public Model The government-public model includes an additional feedback structure that captures the existence of the public in gener...
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2010 for the course POL 3232 taught by Professor What during the Spring '10 term at Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine.

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