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Unformatted text preview: 2000) found in psychology and economics literature. In
reinforcement models, good outcomes reinforce the strategies used, and bad outcomes generate
pressures for changes in these strategies (Erev, 1998; Hammond, 2000). Other models of learning
include belief-based learning models that focus on the role of past performance and expectations
of future performance as drivers for changes in strategies (Feltovich, 2000) and mixed models
that use characteristics of reinforcement models and belief-based models to be able to
characterize a larger variety of learning processes (Camerer and Ho, 1999; Klayman, 1984).
Some learning-related research, however, points against the use of reinforcement models based 7 on outcomes, given the inherent causal attribution problem existent in linking action and
outcomes (Klayman, 1988a, b).
The government-centric model presented assumes that government action alone can generate the
outcomes experienced. In crisis situations (either natural or manmade), however, government
initiatives are just part of an orchestrated set of actions in which the general public plays a key
role in generating the experienced results. Existing research explores public participation before
(King, Feltey, and Susel, 1998) and after (Kasperson and Pijawka, 1985) an event occurs. Our
concern in this model is with public response during the event as part of the necessary actions to
create positive outcomes in the system. To address the interaction of government and public
action in the creation of experienced outcomes, we propose the government-public model as an
extension to our government-centric model. Figure 5 shows the additional structure included to
account for public participation.
Cue 5 Government's
Judgment of Situation
Decision Threshold Government's
Action L1 Government's
Outcomes Public's Judgment
of Situation Public's Perception
L3 Public's Decision
Threshold Figure 5 Government-Public Model
The government-public model includes an additional feedback structure that captures the
existence of the public in gener...
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