Lecture_6 - Lecture 6: Memory Sensation and Perception...

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Lecture 6: Memory Sensation and Perception across Time Stage Model: Encoding and Storage Sensory Memory (Register) o Ionic and Echoic memory o Transfer to STM o Internal and External Triggers Short-term Memory (STM) o Working memory o 7 +/- 2 o Evaluation of information Long-term memory (LTM) o Permanence o Capacity Memory is essentially a way of storing our sensations and perceptions. This allows us to encounter our world, but not re-experiencing everything every time. Stages: o Initial encounter o Filtering process o Storage process o Retrieval process The first stage is referred to as Sensory memory. Manipulation/filtration of memory is known as the short term memory. Long term memory refers to our storage and retrieval process. Sensory Register: External events provide information for sensory organs. Background “noise” Foreground “information” Habituated or desensitized stimuli forgotten within seconds Internal Trigger External Trigger Motivated and aroused to perceive certain information Selective attention to changes in the environment Arousal stimuli Stimuli arousal Not registered or transferred to STM Registered and transferred to STM **Final exam information: 72**
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The sensory register has a time limit, and if we don’t process the information quick enough, we will forget it. o Iconic (visual) memory o Echoic (sound) memory - Sensory memory is only truly effective if you use either the internal or external triggers. Short Term Memory Not usually information that can be retained for long periods of time o i.e.: remembering a phone number Helps to filter information that needs to be stored vs. information that doesn’t. Has a 7 unit (plus or minus 2) storage capacity. o We are able to increase the capacity by associating the information we are trying to retain with long-term memory. i.e.: XNBCPHSSATCBSX associate with things you know; - x NBC (TV station) PHD (graduate degree) SAT (Saturday) CBS (TV station) x - This process is known as chunking, and can only be effective with previous knowledge. i.e.: if you never knew of CBS or NBC, this chunking would be ineffective. - Because of long term memories, it makes it easier to understand various topics (i.e.: student vs. psych prof. reading new information from a psych textbook). In short term memory, more effort needs to be exerted in order to make this process effective. This is why it is called “working memory”. Disequilibration motivates us to remember information (i.e.: unknown phone numbers). Long-term Memory Theoretically permanent Despite the fact that we cannot always retrieve the information, triggers will bring the memories back.
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Lecture_6 - Lecture 6: Memory Sensation and Perception...

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