Lecture_12

Lecture_12 - Lecture 12: Psychopathology and Unipolar...

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Lecture 12: Psychopathology and Unipolar Depression Outline Intro to Psychopathology Models of abnormality Major classifications of mental disorders (DSM) Unipolar Depression Diagnosis and symptomology The Medical Model Four possible causes Treatment The Psychodynamic Model Causes and treatment The Cognitive-Behavioural Model Cognitive mechanisms of depression Treatments The Humanistic Model Client-centred and existential therapies The Socio-Cultural Model Group and family therapies Community psychology Clinical depression has been called the common cold of psychopathology. It affects at least 10% of the population at some point in their lives. Schizophrenia however is far less common, affecting 1.7%. Models of Abnormality 1. Medical: behaviour is symptomatic of physiological abnormality 2. Psychodynamic: behaviour is symptomatic of unresolved intrapsychic conflict 3. Behavioural: behaviour is maladaptive responding due to faulty learning; not symptomatic of underlying pathology; treat the behaviour itself 4. Cognitive: behaviour is symptomatic of faulty thinking or beliefs about self and the world 5. Humanistic: behaviour is symptomatic of inability to fulfill human needs and capabilities 6. Socio-Cultural: behaviour is symptomatic of dysfunctional environments; such as family, society, or culture The perspectives do not necessarily contradict each other; rather they seem to borrow ideas from one another. The DSM (the diagnostic statistical manual): o Now in its 4 th edition, called DSM-IV o Sought to bring the abnormality models together to agree on symptomology, and in turn helps to diagnose o Disorder classifications include: Disorders first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, and adolescence
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Delirium, dementia, and other cognitive Substance related Schizophrenia and other psychotics Mood disorders Anxiety disorders Somatoform disorders Factitious disorders Dissociative Sexual and gender identity Eating Sleep Impulse control Unipolar Depression Depressive episodes are common people have bad days, it is inevitable. We need to ensure that when depression is diagnosed, that it is actually abnormal and not a random occurrence. o Diagnostic criteria for major depressive episodes: At least 5 symptoms must be present within a two week period in order to deem a person “clinically depressed”. This personality must be opposite from who you normally are. Symptoms include: Depressed most of the day Diminished interest or pleasure in activities Significant weight loss/gain when not dieting/decrease or increase in appetite Insomnia/hypersomnia Psychomotor agitation/retardation Fatigue Feelings of worthlessness/excessive guilt Difficulty concentrating Recurrent thoughts of death and suicide, without a specific plan/attempts at suicide Most of these symptoms, such as suicidal tendencies and lack of motivation, tend to contradict each other. In this example, lack of
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Lecture_12 - Lecture 12: Psychopathology and Unipolar...

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