number = paper
number = Styrofoam
Materials Choice[1,1] paper: Large amounts of trees [virgin resource] have to be cut down to produce the
paper cups. However, the paper cups should meet EPA standards and be composed of at least 30%
Styrofoam is composed of the vinyl polymer polystyrene. Polystyrene is synthesized
from non-renewable hydrocarbons such as crude oil
Energy Use [1,2]: To make paper, a tree must be cut down, transported to the tree to factory, cut into
pulp, and then transferred to the paper company
. All of these are fairly energy intensive processes. The
Styrofoam cup involves the extraction of hydrocarbons, energy intensive process to transform the
hydrocarbon to polystyrene.
Solid Residues (1,3): There are no solid residues from petroleum extraction or polystyrene production.
Lime mud, recovery boiler ash, grits, bark, and ashes are the solid wastes that are produced by pulp
Liquid Residues (1,4): Green liquor sludge (dredge), and wastewater treatment sludge are the main
sources of liquid residue,
none of which are extremely dangerous. Fluids that are used for lubrication
during drilling contain certain toxic and dangerous, chemicals that later need to be cleaned
Gaseous Residues (1,5): Cutting down the tree and then pulping produces greenhouse gases. Chemi-
thermomechanical pulping produces a variety of nitrates, sulfides, sulfates, methanol, chlorate, etc.
Extracting petroleum causes significant amounts of methane to escape into the atmosphere.