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Session 14B - Midterm Review Fall 2009

Session 14B - Midterm Review Fall 2009 - IOE 421 Work...

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IOE 421 Work Organizations IOE 421 Work Organizations Session 14B Midterm Exam Review October 23, 2009
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IOE 421 Work Organizations Why IOE 421 Work Organizations? Use Organization Theory to understand how best to create, organize, and run a team, small business, volunteer organization, or corporation. First, What is an Organization? Specifically, What is a Work Organization? Organization Theory helps to explain what happened in the past, as well as what may happen in the future , so that we can manage organizations more effectively
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IOE 421 Work Organizations Definition of a Work Organization A Work Organization is a social entity that is goal oriented, designed as a deliberately structured and coordinated activity system, linked to the external environment. 1. Social entity 2. Goal oriented 3. Deliberately structured 4. Coordinated system 5. Linked to the external environment Work Organizations include large multinational corporations, family owned businesses as well as nonprofits
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IOE 421 Work Organizations Importance of Work Organizations Work organizations exist to do the following: 1. Bring together resources to achieve desired goals and outcomes 2. Produce goods and services efficiently 3. Facilitate innovation 4. Use modern manufacturing and information technologies 5. Adapt to and influence a changing environment 6. Create value for owners, customers and employees 7. Accommodate ongoing challenges of diversity, ethics, and the motivation and coordination of employees
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IOE 421 Work Organizations Machine Theories of Organization Workers seen as extensions of machines Labor perceived as expendable, replaceable parts Maximum task breakdown, allowing for simple, narrow jobs. Workers work, while Managers manage Vertically integrated organizations Frequent competition between individual and organization, gamesmanship Organization goals and objectives focus of all efforts
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IOE 421 Work Organizations Evolution to Machine Theories Pre-Industrial Revolution (Prior to mid 1700s) Craft Guilds and Domestic System of Production Mercantilism Small markets, small organizations, small production systems First Industrial Revolution (mid 1700s - mid 1800s) Growth of New England textile mills Adam Smith (Division of Labor, Capitalism) Larger markets, beginning of integrated organizations Second Industrial Revolution (mid 1800s - early 1900s) Vertically integrated organizations Interchangeable parts for complex machinery
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IOE 421 Work Organizations Evolution to Machine Theories Role of Railroads in Organization Theory (1800s) America’s first big business – large scale management hierarchies and modern accounting systems were needed for first time Rapid construction created large market for mass-produced products such as iron rails, wheels, spikes Connected the country, creating mass markets, easy transportation routes, greater flow of commerce.
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