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MOMDorsiaDistinctiveTradeDress

MOMDorsiaDistinctiveTradeDress - TableofContents...

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Table of Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................ 2 What can be protected as a Trademark? ............................................................................................................ 3 Colors, Fragrances, & Sounds: ...................................................................................................................................... 3 Certification and collective marks ................................................................................................................................. 4 Trade Dress and Product Configurations ..................................................................................................................... 4 Establishment of Trademark Rights .................................................................................................................... 5 Distinctiveness ................................................................................................................................................................. 5 Classification of marks and requirements for protection (Zatarains) ....................................... 5 Distinctiveness of Trade Dress and Product Configuration (2 Pesos, Wal-Mart) ....................... 8 Priority (Zazu) ................................................................................................................................................................. 8 Note on Geographic Limitations ............................................................................................... 9 Note on Priority and TM theory ............................................................................................... 10 Note on Secondary Meaning in the Making Problems ............................................................. 10 TM Office Procedures ................................................................................................................................................... 10 Principal vs. Supplemental Register ....................................................................................... 10 Grounds for refusing Registration (in re Nantucket) ............................................................... 10 Opposition .............................................................................................................................. 11 Concurrent Registration ......................................................................................................... 11 Incontestability (Park ‘N Fly) ...................................................................................................................................... 12 Infringement ......................................................................................................................................................... 12 The Requirement of TM Use (1-800 Conatcts) ........................................................................................................... 12 Likelihood of Consumer Confusion (AMF Inc. v. Sleekcraft) ................................................................................... 12 Dilution (Nabisco v. PF Brands) ................................................................................................................................... 14 Extension by Contract (Franchising and Merchandising Problem) .......................................................................... 15 Domain Names and Cybersquatting ............................................................................................................................ 16 ACPA (Shields v. Zuccarini, PETA v.Dougherty) ...................................................................................................... 16 The Uniform Dispute Resolution Procedure ............................................................................ 18 Contributory Infringement .......................................................................................................................................... 18 False Advertising ........................................................................................................................................................... 19 Defenses ................................................................................................................................................................. 19 Genericness (Murphy Door Bed Co. v. Interior Sleep Systems) ................................................................................ 19 Functionality (Traflix v. Marketing Displays) ............................................................................................................ 21 Abandonment (MLB v. SNOD) .................................................................................................................................... 21 Unsupervised Licenses (Dawn Donut Co. v. Hart’s) ................................................................ 22 The Rule Against Adjustments in Gross .................................................................................. 22 Non Trademark (or Nominative) Use, Parody and the 1st Amendment (Mattel v. MCA) ...................................... 23 International issues in Trademark ..................................................................................................................... 24 Note on “The Grey Market” ......................................................................................................................................... 24 Remedies ............................................................................................................................................................... 25 Injunctions ..................................................................................................................................................................... 25 Damages ......................................................................................................................................................................... 25 Infringers Gain and Mark Owner’s Loss (Lindy Pen Co. v. Bic) ................................................ 25 Corrective Advertising (Big O Tires v. Goodyear) ................................................................... 26
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Introduction I. History: a. At common law trademark concept grew out of unfair competition doctrine of passing off. Today we consider trademark law to be a type of unfair competition law. b. Passing off: Taking unfair business advantage of someone by purporting that the goods you were selling were the goods of someone else. Taking their identity, using their good will. II. In U.S. law, we have two types of trademarks: a. Common law, unregistered, trademark rights: i. Based on having a sufficient identifier and using it in commerce. b. Trademark Register: i. When you register a trademark that gives you certain important litigation presumptions. ii. And, so most companies doing business will at some state decide to register their trademarks. c. Civil law countries in Europe and Latin America, trademarks solely creatures of registration. III. Lanham Act, 1946 : a. Passed through Commerce Clause powers: b. Unique in that there is federal common law for trademarks. Lanham Act § 43. IV. Trademark Theory & Justification: Senior user of a mark may prevent junior users from employing the same or a similar mark where there is a likelihood of confusion between the two marks.
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