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special_speech - Constitutional Law II ForcedSpeech...

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Constitutional Law II Special Issues in 1st Amendment
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Fall 2006 Con Law II 2 Forced Speech  Background Official orthodoxy is odious to free gov’ts Orthody enforced through licensing/prohibition Even more objectionable with forced speech “If there is any fixed star in our  constitutional constellation, it is  that no official, high or petty,  can prescribe what shall be  orthodox in politics, nationalism,  religion, or other matters of  opinion or force citizens to  confess by word or act their 
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Fall 2006 Con Law II 3 WV v. Barnette   (1943) Compulsory flag salute/pledge Is this speech? “symbolism is a primitive but                       effective  way of communicating” applies both to the flag and to the salute the pledge is more traditional (verbal) speech Is it a religious belief (or violation of one)? Compelling state interest? Inculcation of civic virtue (patriotism) Necessary means? Frankfurter dissent.  On what grounds?
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Fall 2006 Con Law II 4 Wooley v. Maynard   (1977) “The right to speak and the right  to refrain from speaking are  complementary components of  the broader concept of `individual  freedom of mind’”
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Fall 2006 Con Law II 5 PG&E v. PUC    (1987) Is speech found inside a billing envelope?  Is it usually private or public  (3d party)  speech? What type of  forum  is the envelope space? Public, limited public, non-public Private property Whose property?  The utility’s or the customer’s? Can gov’t require access to private property  for speech purposes? Only if it satisfies  strict scrutiny Why this standard of review?
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Fall 2006 Con Law II 6 Boy Scouts v. Dale    (2000) To what extent can a private firm or   entity  discriminate in its membership? Ex: hospitals, private schools, colleges, labor  unions, commercial enterprises Discrimination doesn’t violate EP (unless SAD  found) Can state law prohibit private discrimination?
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