WHAP Chapter 5 Notes - Anand Chamarthy WHAP 6 Chapter 5...

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Chapter 5 Notes 1) BIG PICTURE a) Basic themes of three civilizations involve spans and integration. b) Throughout class world, integration and experienced fall between 200 and 500 CE c) Classical civilizations have never embraced bulk of territory around globe, they did include majority of worlds pop 2) EXPANSION AND INTEGRATION a) Heritage of classical civilizations involves host of new ideas styles techniques and institutions b) Between 550 and 400 BCE, seminal thinkers arose in all civilizations—Confucius laozi Buddha and Socrates c) China Indian and Mediterranean set about tasks of uniting expand civilizations in diff ways d) China emphasized greater centralization , particularly in politics e) Indian and Mediterranean remained more localized and diverse f) India—Hinduism g) Integration involved two basic issues- territorial i) China had to reign southern regions, and govt devoted considerable attention to settling northerners in south ii) Southward spread of caste system and ultimo Hindus in India addressed territorial issues iii) Rome comb considerable local autonomy and tolerance with common laws, the expansion of citizenship h) Second challenge to integration was social i) All three classical civilizations fostered great inequalities between men and women and between upper/lower classes ii) Nature of inequality varied iii) Most thinkers did not oppose inequalities except Buddha i) All classical civilizations made some efforts to maintain basic social cohesion while acknowledging inequality 3) BEYOND THE CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS a) Although development of three great civilizations is central thread in world history during classical period, sig changes also occurred in other pts of world. b) On borders of major civilizations, as in NE Africa, Japan, and Europe, changes bore relationship to class world, though partly autonomous c) In all cases, changes during class pd set stage for more important links in world history later on d) A similar case of exp from an established civilization affect parts of sub-Saharan Africa before rise of grecorome Anand Chamarthy WHAP – 6 September 20, 2006
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e) By yr 1000BCE, independent kingdom of Kush was flourishing along upper Nile. Possessed form of writing derived from hieroglyphics. f) Kushites seem to have established a strong monarchy with elaborate ceremonies illustrating belief that king was divine. g) Kingdom of Kush was defeat by rival kingdom called Axum by 300 BCE h) Axum fell to another kingdom—Ethiopia i) They traded with region for several cents. Activities of Jewish merchants brought some converts to Judaism j) It is not clear how much if any the kingdoms of upper Nile had on later history of sub-Saharan Africa. k) Knowledge of Kushite writing didn’t spread like butter
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WHAP Chapter 5 Notes - Anand Chamarthy WHAP 6 Chapter 5...

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