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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 19 Day 1: Question 19-1 Restricted stock refers to shares actually awarded in the name of an employee, although the employer might retain physical possession of the shares. Typically, the employee has all rights of a shareholder, but the shares are subject to certain restrictions or forfeiture. Usually the employee is not free to sell the shares during the restriction period. Restricted shares usually are subject to forfeiture by the employee if employment is terminated between the date of grant and a specified vesting date. Restrictions provide the employee incentive to remain with the company. Compensation cost is the fair value of the restricted stock at the grant date and is equal to the market price of unrestricted shares of the same stock. The fair value of shares awarded under a restricted stock award plan is accrued to compensation expense over the service period for which participants receive the shares. This usually is the period from the date of grant to when restrictions are lifted (the vesting date). Question 19-2 The fair value of a stock option is determined by employing a recognized option pricing model. The option pricing model should take into account the (1) exercise price of the option, (2) expected term of the option, (3) current market price of the stock, (4) expected dividends, (5) expected risk-free rate of return during the term of the option, and (6) expected volatility of the stock. Question 19-3 The recipient pays no tax at the time of the grant or the exercise of the options under an incentive plan. Instead, the tax on the difference between the option price and the market price at the exercise date is paid on the date any shares acquired are subsequently sold. The employer gets no tax deduction at all. The employee cannot delay paying tax under a nonqualified plan. The tax that could be deferred until the shares are sold under an incentive plan must be paid at the exercise date under a nonqualified plan. On the other hand, the employer is allowed to deduct the difference between the option price and the market price on the exercise date. Thus, a nonqualified plan offers favorable tax treatment to the employer, while an incentive plan offers favorable tax treatment to the employee. Answers to Questions (continued) Question 19-4 The fair value of stock options has two essential components: (1) intrinsic value and (2) time value. Intrinsic value is the benefit the holder of an option would realize by exercising the option rather than buying the underlying stock directly. For example, an option that allows an employee to buy $13 stock for $8 has an intrinsic value of $5. Time value exists so long as time remains before expiration because the market price of the underlying stock may yet rise and create additional intrinsic value....
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- Spring '10