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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 9 FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS AND HEDGING FOREIGN EXCHANGE RISK Chapter Outline I. In todays global economy, a great many companies deal in currencies other than their reporting currencies. A. Merchandise may be imported or exported with prices stated in a foreign currency. B. For reporting purposes, foreign currency balances must be stated in terms of the companys reporting currency by multiplying it by an exchange rate. C. Accountants face two questions in restating foreign currency balances. 1. What is the appropriate exchange rate for restating foreign currency balances? 2. How are changes in the exchange rate accounted for? D. Companies often engage in foreign currency hedging activities to avoid the adverse impact of exchange rate changes. E. Accountants must determine how to properly account for these hedging activities. II. Foreign exchange rates are determined in the foreign exchange market under a variety of different currency arrangements. A. Exchange rates can be expressed in terms of the number of U.S. dollars to purchase one foreign currency unit (direct quotes) or the number of foreign currency units that can be obtained with one U.S. dollar (indirect quotes). B. Foreign currency trades can be executed on a spot or forward basis. 1. The spot rate is the price at which a foreign currency can be purchased or sold today. 2. The forward rate is the price today at which foreign currency can be purchased or sold sometime in the future. 3. Forward exchange contracts provide companies with the ability to lock in a price today for purchasing or selling currency at a specific future date. C. Foreign currency options provide the right but not the obligation to buy or sell foreign currency in the future, and therefore are more flexible than forward contracts. III. Statement 52 of the Financial Accounting Standards Board, issued in December 1981, prescribes accounting rules for foreign currency transactions. A. Export sales denominated in foreign currency are reported in U.S. dollars at the spot exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Subsequent changes in the exchange rate are reflected through a restatement of the foreign currency account receivable with an offsetting foreign exchange gain or loss reported in income. This is known as a two- transaction perspective, accrual approach. B. The two-transaction perspective, accrual approach is also used in accounting for foreign currency payables. Receivables and payables denominated in foreign currency create an exposure to foreign exchange risk. IV. FASB Statement 133 (as amended by FASB Statement 138 ) governs the accounting for derivative financial instruments and hedging activities including the use of foreign currency forward contracts and foreign currency options. A. The fundamental requirement of SFAS 133 is that all derivatives must be carried on the balance sheet at their fair value. Derivatives are reported on the balance sheet as assets when they have a positive fair value and as liabilities when they...
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- Spring '10