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Unformatted text preview: Disks and Formatting
Ch 3 1 Overview
The need for formatting a disk will be discussed. Ch 3 2 Overview
The difference between partitioning and formatting a disk will be explained. Ch 3 3 Overview
The structure of a disk will be described. Ch 3 4 Overview
Will learn to format a disk, electronically label it, and then how to change the label. Ch 3 5 Overview
Various file systems will be compared and contrasted. Ch 3 6 Overview
Some of the parameters that can be used with the FORMAT command will be discussed and then used with the FORMAT command.
Ch 3 7 Why Format a Disk?
Disks used for: Permanent storage of data and programs Distributing data from one computer to another Making copies
Ch 3 8 Why Format a Disk?
Formatting (initializing) the disk: Process of preparing disk so that it is compatible with an operating system Ch 3 9 Why Format a Disk?
All disks (including hard disks) must be formatted. Ch 3 10 Partitioning and Formatting Disks
Hard disks must be:
Partitioned Formatted with file system Ch 3 11 Partitioning and Formatting Disks
Partition terms: Primary partition Partition table Volume Active partition Extended partition
Ch 3 12 Partitioning and Formatting Disks
Dual booting system:
Create partition for each OS Only one OS active at a time Each OS formats disks in own way Precautions in running multiple OS Ch 3 13 Partitioning and Formatting Disks
File system: Organizational scheme of OS OS is what makes one computer compatible with another Ch 3 14 Partitioning and Formatting Disks
Windows XP Professional supports four file systems: NTFS Three FAT file systems FAT12 FAT16 FAT32
Ch 3 15 Partitioning and Formatting Disks
Types of disk storage configuration: Basic disks Dynamic disks Ch 3 16 Structure of a Disk
Two parts to formatting a disk: Low-level (physical) formatting High level (logical) formatting Ch 3 17 Structure of a Disk
Low-level (physical) formatting: Sequentially numbers tracks and sectors Identifies each track and sector Disk is physically prepared to hold data
Ch 3 18 Structure of a Disk
High-level (logical) formatting: Determines how OS uses a disk Builds structure to keep track of location of files Done so files can be stored and retrieved.
Ch 3 19 Structure of a Disk
Windows XP Professional monitors status of all disk data sectors. Ch 3 20 Structure of a Disk
One or more sectors are combined into logical units called clusters or allocation units. Ch 3 21 Structure of a Disk
Cluster (allocation unit): Smallest unit that OS can work with Ch 3 22 Structure of a Disk
Cluster overhang: Wasted space on the disk. Ch 3 23 Master Boot Record & Boot Sector Structure of a Disk Master boot record (MBR): First part of hard disk Locates bootable partition of hard disk and gives control over to it
Ch 3 24 Master Boot Record & Boot Sector Structure of a Disk Boot sector: First sector on logical drive Has table of drive's characteristics Has bootstrap loader program
Ch 3 25 Master Boot Record & Boot Sector Structure of a Disk All disks (including non-system disks) have a boot sector. Ch 3 26 Master Boot Record & Boot Sector Structure of a Disk FAT non-system error messages: Non-system disk or disk error Replace disk and press any key when ready
Ch 3 27 Master Boot Record & Boot Sector Structure of a Disk NTFS non-system error messages: Invalid partition table Error loading operating system Missing operating system
Ch 3 28 Master Boot Record & Boot Sector Floppy disk non-system error messages: NTLDR is missing Press any key to restart Structure of a Disk Ch 3 29 Master Boot Record & Boot Sector Structure of a Disk Windows uses boot sector to identify the type of disk. Ch 3 30 Structure of a Disk
FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 FAT's formatting program creates: Boot record File Allocation Table (2 copies) Root directory Ch 3 31 Structure of a Disk
Fig 3.1 Logical Structure of a Disk p. 100 FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 Ch 3 32 Structure of a Disk
FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 FAT is a map of disk's data clusters. cluster. FAT number indicates status of Numbers in FAT link clusters that belong to same file
Ch 3 33 Structure of a Disk
Table 3.1 Cluster Size and Disk Size p. 100 FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 Ch 3 34 Structure of a Disk
FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 FAT essential for: Managing data Following trail of clusters that make up a file
Ch 3 35 Structure of a Disk
FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 VFAT maintains backwards compatibility and accommodates long file names. Ch 3 36 Structure of a Disk
FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 FAT32: Enhancement of FAT file system Introduced to overcome limitations of VFAT Does not apply to floppy drives
Ch 3 37 Structure of a Disk
Table 3.2 Comparison of FAT and FAT32 p. 101 FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 Ch 3 38 Structure of a Disk
FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 FAT32: Movable Root Directory Can be located anywhere on hard disk Can use backup copy of FAT Internal backup copy of some critical FAT data structures Entries in Root Directory limited
Ch 3 39 Structure of a Disk
FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 With smaller clusters:
More clusters on partition FAT larger - store more data Takes longer to locate/access file Ch 3 40 Structure of a Disk
FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 With larger clusters: Table smaller Takes less time to locate/access file Increases wasted disk space from cluster overhang
Ch 3 41 Structure of a Disk
FAT16, VFAT & FAT32 FAT32 is best for many small files. FAT is best for mostly large files.
Ch 3 42 Structure of a Disk
The Root Directory Root Directory: Table that records information about each file on the disk Ch 3 43 Structure of a Disk
The Root Directory Changes in root directory table make Windows XP Professional compatible with older Windows and DOS programs. Ch 3 44 Structure of a Disk
FAT and the Root Directory Root directory tells what is on the disk. FAT tells where data is on the disk. Ch 3 45 Structure of a Disk
FAT and the Root Directory Number in FAT points to next cluster that holds data in file. there is no more data in file.
Ch 3 EOF (end-of-file) marker indicates 46 Structure of a Disk
Fig 3.2 The Root Directory and FAT p. 103 FAT and the Root Directory Ch 3 47 Structure of a Disk
Data Portion or the Files Area Largest part of disk is used for storing files. Space is allocated to files on an as- needed basis.
Ch 3 48 Structure of a Disk
Data Portion or the Files Area A file is written to a disk in:
Contiguous clusters or Noncontiguous clusters. Ch 3 49 Structure of a Disk
Understanding FAT & Root Directory Table
Fig 3.3 Storing Files p. 105 Ch 3 50 Structure of a Disk
NTFS File system used determines OS advanced features available to user. efficiency use NTFS file system. For disk security, performance, and Ch 3 51 NTFS Advantages of NTFS: Structure of a Disk Secure file system Efficient storage of data Faster file access Better data recovery Can compress files/assign disk quotas Encryption of files
Ch 3 52 Structure of a Disk
Clusters and NTFS NTFS: Uses FAT cluster scheme for allocating data. Has less overhead.
Ch 3 53 Structure of a Disk
Table 3.3 NTFS Cluster Size p. 106 Clusters and NTFS Ch 3 54 Structure of a Disk
Fig 3.4 Structure of an NTFS Volume p. 106 Clusters and NTFS Ch 3 55 Structure of a Disk
Master File Table (MFT) Master File Table (MFT): Database of all files in system Used by NTFS to track all files and directories in a volume Dynamic
Ch 3 56 Structure of a Disk
Master File Table (MFT) MFT is different from FAT. Ch 3 57 Structure of a Disk
Master File Table (MFT) MFT: Adds security descriptor attribute to file system Data in file considered to be attribute of file Allows fast access to files Eliminates file fragmentation
Ch 3 58 Structure of a Disk
Master File Table (MFT) MFT: Attribute stored in MFT considered resident attribute Any resident forced out to an extent is nonresident attribute Ch 3 59 Structure of a Disk
Master File Table (MFT) Folders treated as files in NTFS: Small folder - Index Root attribute Folder entries will fit into MFT - new extent nonresident attribute called index buffer Ch 3 60 Structure of a Disk
Deciding on a File System Formatting: Floppy disk - always FAT file system Hard disk - you decide Ch 3 61 Structure of a Disk
Deciding on a File System Can convert FAT to FAT32/NTFS Cannot convert FAT32/NTFS to FAT Ch 3 62 Clarifying Procedures
Procedural assumptions: System utility files subdirectory Type of disk Lab procedures Ch 3 63 Activity--Formatting a Floppy Disk
KEY CONCEPTS: Function of screen prompt Internal vs. external commands Result of keying in FORMAT C: Using the FORMAT command Unique serial number used for disk identification by application programs.
Ch 3 64 Formatting a Disk with a Volume Label
FORMAT command parameters: FORMAT volume [/FS:file-system] [/V:label] [/Q] [A:size] [/C] [/X] FORMAT volume [/V:label] [/Q] [/F:size]
Ch 3 65 Formatting a Disk with a Volume Label
FORMAT command parameters: FORMAT volume [/V:label] [/Q] [/T:tracks /N:sectors] FORMAT volume [/V:label] [/Q] FORMAT volume [/Q]
Ch 3 66 Formatting a Disk with a Volume Label
Basic syntax of FORMAT command: FORMAT volume [/V:label] [/Q] Ch 3 67 Formatting a Disk with a Volume Label
/F size parameter: Easy way to format floppy disks that do not match capacity of a floppy disk drive Ch 3 68 Formatting a Disk with a Volume Label Volume label is electronic name. Partial command diagram FORMAT A: /V[:label] No spaces between colon and label
Ch 3 69 Activity--Using the /V Option
KEY CONCEPTS: Purpose/function of VOL command Need of descriptive volume label Two ways to display volume label [drive:] - variable parameter Ch 3 70 The LABEL Command
LABEL command: External command Used to change volume label without reformatting disk Ch 3 71 The LABEL Command
Partial syntax: LABEL [drive:] [label] Ch 3 72 The LABEL Command
LABEL (external) command: Used to change volume label Used to see volume label
Ch 3 73 VOLUME (internal) command: Activity--Using the Label Command
KEY CONCEPTS: Importance of including A: parameter Deleting volume label on disk Placing volume label on disk Use of spaces in LABEL and VOLUME commands
Ch 3 74 Formatting a Disk using the /Q Parameter
/Q parameter: Fast way to clear previously formatted disks Works like usual FORMAT command
Skips low level formatting Clears FAT and root directory Does not check for bad sectors
Ch 3 75 Activity--Using the /Q Parameter
KEY CONCEPTS: Reason /Q parameter can be used Eliminate previous volume label when formatting disk Ch 3 76 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2010 for the course CIS CIS 103 taught by Professor Dorisdunn during the Winter '09 term at Skagit Valley College.
- Winter '09