4097978006

4097978006 - Concepts and Terminology ME4214 Design for...

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1 ME4214 Design for Product Safety HAZOP - Hazard and Operability Study Dr. David Yuen Department of Mechanical Engineering The Hong Kong Polytechnic University 2 Concepts and Terminology Hazard: A situation with actual or potential danger to people, environment, or material Example: interlock that prevents subway door from opening isn’t activated Incident (near miss): Sometimes a hazard results in an incident Something that under other circumstances would have been an accident Example: subway door opens, but nobody is leaning against it Accident (also called a mishap): If you get unlucky, what could be an incident turns into an accident Events that cause death, injury, environmental, or material damage Example: subway door opens, and someone falls out of car Risk: A combination of probability of hazards, and severity of likely outcomes. (more on this later) 3 Concepts and Terminology Operability: – the capacity of a system to function A Design Intent: – a description of how the system / process is expected to behave. Cause – the reason why the deviation could occur. Several causes may be identified for one deviation. Consequence: – the result of the deviation, in case it occurs. It may both lead to hazards and operability problems. An Element – the relevant parameter for certain condition(s). e.g. timing, weather. A Guideword: – is a short word to create the imagination of a potential deviation of the design intent. The guidewords are applied, one by one, to all the elements to identify deviations from the design intent. 4 Hazard
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5 Exposure to Risk 6 Near Miss 7 Accident Trigger 8 Accident
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9 Now you should be clear that… • A Hazard is a condition that could lead to an accident. • Risk is the chance of the Hazard resulting in harm. • An Accident is when the risk of a Hazard manifested into an undesired and unintended event resulting in harm. 10 Risk Assessment • Scheme for qualitative and quantitative assessments • At all steps, risk reducing measures need to be considered System definition Hazard identification Analysis of accident scenarios Consequence analysis and modelling Estimation of accident frequencies Risk estimation 11 Risk Analysis Hazard Identification Hazard & Scenario Analysis Likelihood Consequences Risk •”Whatif” •Check l ists •HAZOP • Task analysis •Index(Dow ,Mond) Risk Analysis – Main Steps 12 Risk Analysis Hazard Identification Hazard & Scenario Analysis Likelihood Consequences Risk Fault tree analysis • Event tree analysis •Bowt ies • Barrier diagrams • Reliability data • Human reliability • Consequence models Risk Analysis – Main Steps
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13 Preliminary hazard identification Identification of safety relevant sections of the establishment, considering – raw materials and products – plant equipment and facility layout – operation environment – operational activities – interfaces among system components Important to secure C ompleteness, C onsistency and C orrectness 14
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2010 for the course ME ME4214 taught by Professor Dr.yuen during the Spring '10 term at NYU Poly.

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4097978006 - Concepts and Terminology ME4214 Design for...

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