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2596705881 - Overview of Creative Methods Alla Zusman Boris...

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Overview of Creative Methods Alla Zusman & Boris Zlotin Objectives of this report To research the availability of various methods dealing with creativity, innovation and problem solving, for the purpose of understanding the market. To identify the key players and the way in which they could be linked and/or positioned. Introduction There are three connected (and partially overlapping) areas of human activity related to any kind of development: Creativity Problem solving Design According to James M. Higgins, creativity is the process of generating something new that has value 1[1] . Problem solving is the process required when we seek some kind of a resolution, such as removal of a drawback or achievement of a specific enhancement or improvement. Problem solving usually includes creativity as a part of the process. Design activity is necessary when we are dealing with any kind of a project. The design process can include problem solving and, if necessary, creativity 2[2] . Traditionally, each of these activities has its main focus, that is, creativity focuses on the human, problem solving is built around a problem, and a design (or project) is built around a system to be developed or improved. However, there is a definite trend toward mutual penetration of these activities. For example, many creative techniques include preparation or implementation phases, while some problem-solving techniques include problem verification, reformulation, etc. In general, each process can be a multi-step procedure. Two very different types of steps required can be identified, as follows: Well-defined, organized and controlled; easy to explain, learn, and utilize with predictable results. 1 [1] James M. Higgins. 101 Creative Problem Solving Techniques (New Management Publishing Company, 1994). 2 [2] John Christopher Jones. Design Methods (John Wiley & Sons, 1997). 1
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Difficult to explain, hard to follow, poorly controlled, containing many uncertainties, lacking a guarantee of results – in other words, those requiring creativity. Steps of this second type have always attracted scientists and practitioners, who have attempted to formalize them to the extent that they become predictable and controllable as are the steps of the first type. The history of the development of various creative problem-solving techniques extends back to the 4 th century of the Christian Era, with Papp in Alexandria, Egypt. Papp was searching for a science of invention; he even found a name for this science: heuristics . For centuries, however, there was no real demand for such a science – until the 19 th century when the industrial revolution started. Moreover, it seemed fairly obvious that creativity was a product of the human brain, and thus the main approach to creativity was focused on attempts to enhance the creative process by facilitating an individual’s mental processes, that is, psychology-based approaches to creativity.
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