HANDOUT123 - Pharmocology is the science of interaction of chemicals with living organisms at all levels Pharmacy is the art of preparing

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Unformatted text preview: Pharmocology is the science of interaction of chemicals with living organisms at all levels. Pharmacy is the art of preparing, compounding, and dispensing chemicals for medicinal use Pharmacokinetics is the effect of the body (ADME) of the body on drugs Pharmacodynamics is what drugs do to the body (stimulate, inhibit enzymes, block receptors) Pharmacogenetics studies the genetic variations among people that cause the different responses from the same drug (e.g. dopamine and the Asian flush) Toxicology is the study of undesirable chemical effects on living systems; toxicology includes poisons and unwanted side effects of drugs Tolerance is increased resistance to the usual effects of an established dose of a particular drug Efficacy is the inherent capability of a drug to produce a desired effect Potency compares the relative effectiveness of the drug to produce the desired effect Four Ways to Make New Drugs : 1. Make analogs to existing drugs by changing side groups that results in minor changes in potency, absorption, and duration of action 2. Use existing drugs for new applications because often the side effects of existing drugs are unexpectedly discovered and marketed for a different desired effect (e.g. ) 3. Synthesize and screen new chemical entities for particular types of biological activity 4. Rational Drug Design : design new compounds for a specific biological function a. Develop ligands based on structural info of desired receptor/enzyme i. STI-571 (Glevec®) inhibitrs Bcr-Abl protein b. Synthesize naturally occurring compounds or analogs i. L-dopa as a H2 receptor antagonist c. Clone genes i. Hormones All medicinal drugs, except for supplements, must have evidence of efficacy for their licensed indication(s) Orphan Drug Act of 1983 provides incentives for the development of drugs for conditions affecting small groups of individual in the US (rare diseases) (e.g. Alphanate—used in surgical/invasive procedures on von Willebrand sufferers) Establishing Drug Safety & Efficacy 1. Preclinical Studies (animal models only) a. Pharmacological Profile i. Receptor-binding characteristics in-vitro ii. Determine potential therapeutic use b. Pharmacokinetics i. Identify any dangerous metabolites from drug ii. Observe how well the body absorbs the drug (bioavailability) iii. Establish the main route of administration and determine the rate of elimination of the drug c. Toxicological Effects: 3 Types of Toxicity i. Acute Toxicity: single dose given to determine the safe range of the drug ii. Subacute toxicity: dose given and reported for two weeks to 28 days; this can indicate potential accumulation of drug iii. Chronic Toxicity: doses of drug is repeatedly given up to 6 months to observe for long-term side-effects 2. Phase I Clinical Studies (healthy volunteers without disease drug is indicated for) a. Drug is initially given in small doses and gradually increased until pharmacological effect or toxicity is observed. The goals of the Phase I clinical studies is to observe the metabolism and elimination pathways of the drug...
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2010 for the course BIMM bimm 120 taught by Professor Larsen during the Spring '07 term at UCSD.

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HANDOUT123 - Pharmocology is the science of interaction of chemicals with living organisms at all levels Pharmacy is the art of preparing

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