Chapter04.June02 - Chapter 4 Bonding Theories for...

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15 Chapter 4 Bonding Theories for Coordination Compounds The sections and subsections in this chapter are listed below. 4.1 Early Bonding Theories The Lewis Acid-Base Definition Crystal Field, Valence Bond, and Molecular Orbital Theories 4.2 Crystal Field Theory Shapes of 3d Orbitals Octahedral Fields Tetragonally-Distorted Octahedral and Square Planar Fields Tetrahedral Fields 4.3 Consequences and Applications of Crystal Field Splitting Crystal Field Splitting Energies versus Pairing Energies Crystal Field Stabilization Energies Factors Affecting the Magnitude of the Crystal Field Splitting Energies Magnetic Properties Absorption Spectroscopy and the Colors of Coordination Compounds Chapter 4 Objectives You should be able to explain how Lewis acid-base theory applies to coordination compounds define and use the effective atomic number rule for coordination compounds briefly outline how the valence bond, molecular orbital, and crystal field theories generally are applied to coordination compounds qualitatively sketch out the shapes of the five independent 3d orbitals explain how the two dependent 3d z²-y² and 3d z²-x² orbitals are related to the 3d orbital explain in detail how the five independent 3d orbitals split in an octahedral field explain in detail the changes in the relative energies of the 3d orbitals when the z-axis ligands of an octahedral field are gradually withdrawn to produce a tetragonally-elongated and ultimately a square planar crystal field explain in detail how the five independent 3d orbitals split in a tetrahedral field describe the strong- and weak-field, low- and high-spin cases as applied to coordination compounds calculate the crystal field stabilization energy (CFSE) in terms of the crystal field splitting (Δ) and pairing (P) energies for any given d n case in an octahedral, tetrahedral, or square planar crystal field explain how factors such as the type of field, the size and charge of the metal ion, and the size and charge of the ligand should affect the magnitude of the crystal field splitting energy assuming a completely ionic M-L interaction rationalize the degree to which the spectrochemical series can and cannot be explained by the crystal field theory explain how admitting a certain degree of covalent character to the M-L interaction can be used to better rationalize the spectrochemical series
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16 sketch out how molar susceptibility is measured and how its value can be related to the magnetic moment, μ, and to the number of unpaired electrons in a coordination compound rationalize why so many coordination compounds are highly colored and how these colors can, in some cases, be simply related to the size of crystal field splitting energy
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17 Solutions to Odd-Numbered Problems 4.1 Hydrogen ions: (1) Arrhenius acid -- treats acids as substances that produce H + in solution (2) Brønsted-Lowry acid -- capable of transferring a proton (H + ) (3) Lewis acid -- H
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Chapter04.June02 - Chapter 4 Bonding Theories for...

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