Chapter07.June02 - Chapter 7 Solid State Structures The...

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39 Chapter 7 Solid State Structures The sections and subsections in this chapter are listed below. 7.1 Types of Crystals Ionic Crystals Metallic Crystals Covalent Network Crystals Atomic/Molecular Crystals 7.2 A-type Crystal Lattices A-type Lattices 7.3 AB n -type Crystal Lattices Cubic, Octahedral, and Tetrahedral Holes Radius Ratios Ionic Radii AB Structures AB 2 Structures 7.4 Structures Involving Polyatomic Molecules and Ions 7.5 Defect Structures 7.6 Spinel Structures: Connecting Crystal Field Effects with Solid State Structures
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40 Chapter 7 Objectives You should be able to distinguish among and characterize the various types of crystals: ionic, metallic, covalent, and atomic/molecular identify and characterize common A-type structures by the coordination number of a given sphere, the number of spheres per unit cell, the fraction of space occupied, and the density expression identify and appreciate the significance of the Bravais lattices characterize atomic, van der Waals, and metallic radii calculate the density of a given metallic crystal knowing its structure and relevant atomic weight and radii data identify and determine the relative sizes of cubic, octahedral, and tetrahedral holes in various A-type structures use radius ratios to predict the type of hole occupied by the smaller species in an AB n structure rationalize why the radius ratio represents the lower limit to the range in which a given type of hole will be occupied discuss the origin and variation of Shannon-Prewitt ionic radii identify and characterize common AB structures (rock salt, zinc blende, wurtzite, and cesium chloride) by the structure and coordination numbers of both their anions and cations calculate the density of a given compound knowing the type of AB structure it assumes identify and characterize common AB 2 structures (fluorite, cadmium iodide, rutile, and anti- fluorite) by the structure and coordination numbers of both their anions and cations identify and discuss AB n structures involving polyatomic molecules and ions identify and characterize common defect structures such as Schottky and Frenkel defects and edge dislocations characterize normal and inverse spinel structures and provide a rationale for the structure of a given compound based on calculations of crystal field stabilization energies
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41 Solutions to Odd-Numbered Problems 7.1. Metallic Crystals – a lattice of cations held together by a sea of free electrons, for example, metallic copper. Covalent Crystals – atoms or groups of atoms in a lattice held together by an interlocking network of covalent bonds, for example, diamond. Atomic/Molecular Crystals – a lattice of atoms or molecules held together by intermolecular forces (Van der Waals, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonds), for example, argon, water.
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