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Chapter09.June02 - Chapter 9 Building a Network of Ideas to...

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58 Chapter 9 Building a Network of Ideas to Make Sense of the Periodic Table The sections and subsections of this chapter are listed below. 9.1 The Periodic Law Effective Nuclear Charge Atomic Radii Ionization Energy Electron Affinity Electronegativity 9.2 The Uniqueness Principle The Small Size of the First Elements The Increased Likelihood of π-bonding in the First Elements The Lack of Availability of d orbitals in the First Elements 9.3 The Diagonal Effect 9.4 The Inert Pair Effect 9.5 Metal, Nonmetal, and Metalloid Regions 9.6 Conclusions Chapter 9 Objectives You should be able to discuss the contributions of Dmitrii Mendeleev in formulating the periodic table of the elements calculate and rationalize values of effective nuclear charges discuss the central role of effective nuclear charge in determining the major periodic trends in atomic radii, ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativities define the uniqueness principle and discuss the three main reasons behind it define the diagonal effect and discuss the three main factors behind it define the inert pair effect and discuss the two main reasons behind it locate the metal/nonmetal line on the periodic table and discuss why it is positioned the way it is summarize the first five components of the interconnected network of ideas for making sense of the periodic table
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59 Solutions to Odd-Numbered Problems 9.1. The properties of eka-silicon (germanium) can be interpolated from those of silicon and tin (above and below it) and gallium and arsenic (to its left and right). Some reasonable predicted and actual values are given below. Actual for Ge Predicted vertically Predicted horizontally atomic weight (g/mol) 72.59 73.4 72.3 density (g/cm 3 ) 5.32 4.8 5.8 melting point (ºC) 937 823 421 boiling point (ºC) 2830 2312 --- electronegativity 1.8 1.8 1.8 ionization energy (kJ/mol) 760 748 763 electron affinity (kJ/mol) -118 -120 -56 atomic radius (Å) 1.39 --- --- 9.3. Main-group or representative elements are defined in this chapter as those in which the ns and np orbitals are partially filled. Under this definition, the noble gases, with their filled shells, would not be so defined. On the other hand, if the noble gases are not representative elements, how should we classify them? The only alternative would be to designate a separate term for them, a designation that is probably not worth making. 9.5. According to Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary , 2nd Edition, Dorset & Baber, 1979, the prefix chalco- is the combining form of copper or brass while the suffix -gen indicates "something that produces." Therefore the word chalcogen means something that produces copper or brass. Sulfides and oxides are the main components of copper ores and therefore do produce copper. This is the origin of the group name for the Group 6A elements.
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