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Chapter14.June02 - Chapter 14 The Group 3A Elements The...

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89 Chapter 14 The Group 3A Elements The sections and subsections of this chapter are listed below. 14.1 Discovery and Isolation of the Elements Boron Aluminum Gallium Indium and Thallium 14.2 Fundamental Properties and the Network Hydrides, Oxides, Hydroxides, and Halides 14.3 Structural Aspects of Boron Chemistry Allotropes Borides Borates 14.4 Aluminum, Gallium, Indium, and Thallium Aluminum Metal and Alloys Alum Alumina Gallium, Indium, and Thallium Compounds 14.5 Selected Topic in Depth: Electron-Deficient Compounds Chapter 14 Objectives You should be able to: briefly state how and by whom the Group 3A elements were discovered rationalize the trends in radii, ionization energies, electron affinities, and electronegativities of the group with particular emphasis on the anomalies in these properties shown by the heavier elements describe the general nature of the group oxides, hydroxides, and halides list and briefly rationalize the ways in which boron is different from its heavier congeners list and briefly rationalize how the chemistry of the heavier Group 3A congeners is organized by the inert pair effect describe the relationship between the general chemical nature of the borides and their applications describe the general molecular nature and a few of the applications of ortho-, meta-, and perborates list and briefly rationalize several applications of aluminum and its alloys list and briefly rationalize several applications of alums and alumina describe the safety and health hazards that accompanied the discovery of the borohydrides describe the nature of three-center, two-electron bonds draw and rationalize semi-topological diagrams of the simple boranes represent and rationalize the preparations and major reactions of the boranes describe and represent several electron-deficient compounds other than the boranes
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90 Solutions to Odd-Numbered Problems 14.1. (a) Gay-Lussac and Thénard's preparation of boron: 6K(s) + B 2 O 3 (s) ─Δ 2B(s) + 3K 2 O(s) (b) Wöhler's preparation of aluminum: AlCl 3 (s) + 3K(s) ─Δ Al(s) + 3KCl(s) 14.3. Turkish samples: AW = 0.2030(10.01294) + (0.7970)(11.00931) = 10.807u California samples: AW = (0.1910)(10.01294) + (0.8090)(11.00931) = 10.819u 14.5. 204 81 Tl ─β - 0 -1 e + 204 82 Pb 14.7. (a) Periodic law: (i) atomic radii increase whereas ionization energies, electronegativities, and (the magnitudes of) electron affinities generally decrease going down the group; (ii) all the elements have three valence electrons.
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