Chapter18.June02 - Chapter 18 Group 7A: The Halogens The...

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120 Chapter 18 Group 7A: The Halogens The sections and subsections of this chapter are listed below. 18.1 Discovery and Isolation of the Elements Chlorine Iodine Bromine Fluorine Astatine 18.2 Fundamental Properties and the Network Hydrides Halides Oxides 18.3 Oxoacids and Their Salts Hypohalous Acids, HOX, and Hypohalites, OX - Halous acids, HOXO and Halites, XO 2 - Halic acids, HOXO 2 and Halates, XO 3 - Perhalic acids, HOXO 3 and Perhalates, XO 4 - 18.4 Neutral and Ionic Interhalogens 18.5 Reactions and Compounds of Practical Importance Fluoridation Chlorination Bleaches Bromides 18.6 Selected Topic in Depth: Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) – A Threat to the Ozone Layer
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121 Chapter 18 Objectives You should be able to briefly relate how and by whom the halogens were discovered outline the general manner in which the periodic law, uniqueness principle, acid-base character of oxides, and standard reduction potentials are applicable to the group explain why fluorine is such an extraordinarily powerful oxidizing agent and how this property made it so difficult to isolate discuss the preparations and properties of the hydrogen halides summarize and give representative examples of the various ways to prepare halides of the representative elements list and discuss the major applications of the halogen oxides discuss the preparations, properties, and applications of 1) the hypohalous acids and the hypohalites 2) the halous acids and the halites 3) the halic acids and the halates 4) the perhalic acids and the perhalates discuss the preparation, structures, and major reactions of the interhalogens discuss the history of and the chemistry central to systemic and topical fluoridation briefly explain the role of the halogens in the chlorination of water supplies, the nature of bleaches, and the applications of the bromides discuss the history of and chemistry central to identifying the role of chlorofluorocarbons and halons as threats to the ozone layer
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122 Solutions to Odd-Numbered Problems *18.1. (a) Priestley’s isolation of hydrogen chloride gas: NaCl + HX ─→ HCl(g) + NaX, where HX is a strong acid. He used mercury because HCl gas is soluble in water. (b) Scheele’s isolation of chlorine gas: 4NaCl(aq) + 2H 2 SO 4 (aq) + MnO 2 (s) ─→ 2Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + MnCl 2 (aq) + 2H 2 O(l) + Cl 2 (g). MnO 2 is the oxidizing agent and NaCl is the reducing agent. 18.3. 2NaI(s) + 2H 2 SO 4 (aq) ─→ I 2 (s) + SO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) An analogous attempt to make chlorine gas, Cl 2 (g), would produce only HCl because sulfuric acid is not a strong enough oxidizing agent to oxidize chlorides to chlorine. 18.5. Cl AW = 35.45u Br Predicted AW of Br = 35.45 + 126.9 = 81.2u I AW = 126.9u 2 The actual AW of bromine is 79.9u. There is only a 1.6% error between the predicted and actual values. 18.7.
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Chapter18.June02 - Chapter 18 Group 7A: The Halogens The...

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