CH7 - UNIT II Cell Chapter 7 Enzymes Metabolism and Cellular Respiration 1 Student Learning Outcomes Explain the various ways in which enzymes

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1 UNIT II. Cell Chapter 7 Enzymes, Metabolism, and Cellular Respiration
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2 Student Learning Outcomes: Explain the various ways in which enzymes increase the rate of biological reactions. Describe the involvement of ATP in a wide variety of cellular processes. Trace the path of electrons from glucose to water in full aerobic respiration. Compare and contrast the various secondary metabolites described in the chapter.
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3 Metabolism Sum total of all chemical reactions that occur within an organism Also refers to specific chemical reactions at the cellular level
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4 Chemical reactions 2 factors govern fate of a chemical reaction Direction Many cells use ATP to drive reactions in 1 direction Rate Catalysts called enzyme can speed the reaction rate aA + bB ↔ cC + dD
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5 Energy Ability to promote change 2 forms Kinetic- associated with movement Potential- due to structure or location Chemical energy- energy in molecular bonds
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6 2 Laws of thermodynamics 1. First law Law of conservation of energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed 2. Second law Transfer or transformation of energy from one form to another increases entropy or degree of disorder of a system
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7 H = G + TS H= enthalpy or total energy G= free energy or amount of energy for work S= entropy or unusable energy T= absolute temperature in Kelvin (K)
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Fig. 7.3-1, p. 127
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9 Change in free energy determines direction Energy transformations involve an increase in entropy Entropy - a measure of the disorder that cannot be harnessed to do work
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10 ΔG = Δ H - T Δ S Exergonic ΔG<0 or negative free energy change Spontaneous Endergonic ΔG>0 or positive free energy change Requires addition of free energy Not spontaneous
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11 Hydrolysis of ATP ΔG = -7.3 kcal/mole Reaction favors formation of products Energy liberated can drive a variety of cellular processes
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12 Cells use ATP hydrolysis An endergonic reaction can be coupled to an exergonic reaction Endergonic reaction will be spontaneous if net free energy change for both processes is negative
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13 Glucose + phosphate → glucose-phosphate + H 2 O ΔG = +3.3 Kcal/mole endergonic ATP + H 2 O → ADP + P i ΔG = -7.3 Kcal/mole exergonic Coupled reaction: Glucose + ATP → glucose-phosphate + ADP ΔG = -4.0 Kcal/mole exergonic
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14 Enzymes A spontaneous reaction is not necessarily a fast reaction Catalyst- agent that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed during the reaction Enzymes- protein catalysts in living cells
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15 Activation energy (pp. 128-129). See Fig. 7.4, p. 129 Initial input of energy to start reaction Allows molecules to get close enough to cause bond rearrangement Can now achieve transition state where bonds are stretched
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Fig. 7.4, p. 129
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17 Overcoming activation energy 2 common ways Large amounts of heat Using enzymes to lower activation energy Small amount of heat can now push reactants to transition state
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2010 for the course BIO bio 183 taught by Professor Ferzli during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.

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CH7 - UNIT II Cell Chapter 7 Enzymes Metabolism and Cellular Respiration 1 Student Learning Outcomes Explain the various ways in which enzymes

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