CH16 - UNIT III. Genetics Chapter 16 Simple Patterns of...

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1 UNIT III. Genetics Chapter 16 Simple Patterns of Inheritance
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2 Student Learning Outcomes: Explain the laws of segregation and independent assortment. Predict the outcome of genetic crosses by using Punnett squares. Outline the tenets of the chromosome theory of inheritance. Differentiate between the major categories of sex determination in animals. Compare and contrast the molecular basis for variations in inheritance patterns, including relevant examples from the medical community.
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3 Early ideas about inheritance (p. 325) pangenesis blending inheritance inheritance of acquired characters particulate inheritance
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4 Gregor Johann Mendel 1822–1884 Entered monastery and became a priest Historic studies on pea plants Paper ignored at the time Independently rediscovered years later
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5 Garden Pea, Pisum sativum Several advantageous properties Many readily available characters or traits Normally self-fertilizing True-breeding lines exhibit the same traits Ease of making crosses with large flowers Cross-fertilization or hybridization
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6 Fig. 16.2, p. 327. The Seven Traits That Mendel Studied
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7 Fig. 16.3, p. 327
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8 Fig. 16.4, p. 328
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9 > Single-factor cross Experimenter follows the variants of only 1 trait P generation True-breeding parents F 1 generation Offspring of P cross Monohybrids – if parents differ in 1 trait F 2 generation F 1 self-fertilizes Fig. 16.5a, p. 329
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Fig. 16.5a, p. 329
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11 Fig. 16.5b, p. 329
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12 3 important ideas 1. Dominant and recessive traits Dominant is displayed trait Recessive trait masked by dominant trait 2. Genes and alleles Particulate mechanism of inheritance His “unit factors” are genes Every individual has 2 genes for a trait Gene has two variant forms or alleles
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13 3. Segregation of alleles Approximately 3:1 ratio Two copies of a gene carried by an F 1 plant segregate (separate) from each other, so that each sperm or egg carries only one allele Mendel’s Law of Segregation 2 copies of a gene segregate from each other during the transmission from parent to offspring
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14 Fig. 16.6, p. 329
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15 Genotype and phenotype Genotype Genetic composition of individual TT or tt – homozygous Tt – heterozygous Phenotype Characteristics that are the result of gene expression TT and Tt are tall tt is dwarf
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16 Punnett square Step 1. Write down the genotypes of both parents Male parent: Tt Female parent: Tt Step 2. Write down the possible gametes that each parent can make Male gametes: T or t Female gametes: T or t
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Step 3. Create an empty Punnett square. T
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2010 for the course BIO bio 183 taught by Professor Ferzli during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.

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CH16 - UNIT III. Genetics Chapter 16 Simple Patterns of...

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