Batzer and Deininger 2002 Nature Reviews Genetics

Batzer and Deininger 2002 Nature Reviews Genetics

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Unformatted text preview: Sci. USA 93, 4360–4364 (1996). 105. Ryan, S. C., Zielinski, R. & Dugaiczyk, A. Structure of the gorilla α-fetoprotein gene and the divergence of primates. Genomics 9, 60–72 (1991). 106. Nishio, H., Hamdi, H. K. & Dugaiczyk, A. Genomic expansion across the albumin gene family on human chromosome 4q is directional. Biol. Chem. 380, 1431–1434 (1999). 107. Bailey, W. J. et al. Molecular evolution of the ψε-globin gene locus: gibbon phylogeny and the hominoid slowdown. Mol. Biol. Evol. 8, 155–184 (1991). 108. Koop, B. F. et al. Tarsius δ- and β-globin genes: conversions, evolution, and systematic implications. J. Biol. Chem. 264, 68–79 (1989). 109. Kass, D. H., Batzer, M. A. & Deininger, P. L. Gene conversion as a secondary mechanism of short interspersed element (SINE) evolution. Mol. Cell. Biol. 15, 19–25 (1995). 110. Roy, A. M. et al. Potential gene conversion and source genes for recently integrated Alu elements. Genome Res. 10, 1485–1495 (2000). In this paper, the authors provide an initial estimate of the impact of gene conversion on the sequence diversity of Alu elements. 111. Maeda, N., Wu, C. I., Bliska, J. & Reneke, J. Molecular evolution of intergenic DNA in higher primates: pattern of DNA changes, molecular clock, and evolution of repetitive sequences. Mol. Biol. Evol. 5, 1–20 (1988). 112. Hayakawa, T., Satta, Y., Gagneux, P., Varki, A. & Takahata, N. Alu-mediated inactivation of the human CMP-Nacetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase gene. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 98, 11399–11404 (2001). 113. Hoff, E. F., Levin, H. L. & Boeke, J. D. Schizosaccharomyces pombe retrotransposon Tf2 mobilizes primarily through homologous cDNA recombination. Mol. Cell. Biol. 18, 6839–6852 (1998). 114. Ardlie, K. et al. Lower-than-expected linkage disequilibrium between tightly linked markers in humans suggests a role for gene conversion. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69, 582–589 (2001). 115. Frisse, L. et al. Gene conversion and different population histories may explain the contrast between polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium levels. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69, 831–843 (2001). 116. Rubin, C. M., VandeVoort, C. A., Teplitz, R. L. & Schmid, C. W. Alu repeated DNAs are differentially methylated in primate germ cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 5121–5127 (1994). 117. Schmid, C. W. Human Alu subfamilies and their methylation revealed by blot hybridization. Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 5613–5617 (1991). 118. Bird, A. P. DNA methylation and the frequency of CpG in animal DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 8, 1499–1504 (1980). 119. Liu, W. M., Maraia, R. J., Rubin, C. M. & Schmid, C. W. Alu transcripts: cytoplasmic localisation and regulation by DNA methylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 1087–1095 (1994). 120. Liu, W. M. & Schmid, C. W. Proposed roles for DNA methylation in Alu transcriptional repression and mutational inactivation. Nucleic Acids Res. 21, 1351–1359 (1993). 121. Li, T. & Schmid, C. W. Differential stress induction of individual Alu loci: implications for transcription and retrotransposition. Gene 276, 135–141 (2001). 122. Liu, W. M., Chu, W. M., Choudary, P. V. & Schmid, C. W. Cell stress and translational inhibitors transiently increase the abundance of mammalian SINE transcripts. Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 1758–1765 (1995). 123. Schmid, C. W. Does SINE evolution preclude Alu function? Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 4541–4550 (1998). An interesting discussion of the evidence for potential functional roles for Alu sequences. 124. Li, T., Spearow, J., Rubin, C. M. & Schmid, C. W. Physiological stresses increase mouse short interspersed element (SINE) RNA expression in vivo. Gene 239, 367–372 (1999). 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. Acknowledgements Research on mobile elements in the Batzer and Deininger labs is supported by the National Institutes of Health, Department of the Army, Louisiana Board of Regents Millennium Trust Health Excellence Fund and the Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, Department of Justice. The points of view in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the US Department of Justice. 82. 83. 84. 85. Online links DATABASES The following terms in this article are linked online to: LocusLink: α-fetoprotein | albumin | CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase | frataxin | TP53 OMIM: α-thalassaemia | acute myelogenous leukaemia | Apert syndrome | breast cancer | C3 deficiency | cholinesterase deficiency | complement deficiency | Ewing sarcoma | familial hypercholesterolaemia | Friedreich ataxia | haemophilia | insulin-resistant diabetes type II | Lesch–Nyhan syndrome | neurofibromatosis | Tay–Sachs disease FURTHER INFORMATION Batzer laboratory: Deininger laboratory: Dolan DNA Learning Center, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory — Genetic Origins and Alu Insertion Polymorphism: http://www.geneticorigi...
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