Unit 3 Affect

Unit 3 Affect - Unit 3 The Role of Affect in The Decision-making Decision-making J Schultz Univ of Maryland Psyc309N J Overview • • • •

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Unformatted text preview: Unit 3: The Role of Affect in The Decision-making Decision-making J. Schultz, Univ. of Maryland, Psyc309N J. Overview • • • • What is affect? Where it comes from What it does, why it's “fundamental” 3 types: – – – Integral Incidental Task-related 2 What is affect? • Affect: “An internal feeling Affect: state”, feelings and emotion/ mood experiences mood Comprised of 2 dimensions: – Pleasant /Unpleasant – • Activation / Activation Deactivation Deactivation • “Circumplex” describes all Circumplex” affective experiences; different combinations of these two dimensions (Russell, 1980) (Russell, 3 What is affect? (2) • These two basic dimensions have evolutionary value: – Pleasant/Unpleasant rules the approach/avoidance goal Pleasant/Unpleasant response, which need not be conscious response, • • Animal on the horizon: should we flee, fight/feed, or ignore? Having an “explicit” positive attitude or a conscious “liking” Having for something is a nice byproduct, but we need a signal that tells us what to do do We need vigorous activation to flee/fight/feed, but also need We rest & time to repair in order to survive rest Activation/Deactivation system amplifies the Activation/Deactivation amplifies positive/negative emotion; mere arousal needs to be interpreted (Schachter & Singer, 1962 epinipherine interpreted experiment) experiment) 4 – Activation/Deactivation serves a similar purpose: • • Where does affect come from? • • Reactions to events in our lives Caused proximally by neurotransmitters & hormones in Caused brain & blood; but not going to investigate that further in this class this A signal of how well we are doing in our lives at any signal given time (if we lacked consciousness, this would be given the only signaling system for this that we had!) the Really more about differences (relative marker) from our Really differences prior states and expectancies than absolute experiences (Roese, 1994) 5 • • What does affect do? • We have a little bit of experience with affect from Unit 2: – It is our “fundamental” or “most favored” metric; It It can be used as a simple rule (such as in the case of choices between mathematical possibilities) to determine preferences determine – It also acts as a rule that tells us when our It “adjusted” estimate from the initial anchor is plausible (positive affect tells us when to stop) plausible That “fundamental metric” thing I said earlier is a bit of That an overstatement, but I'll explain exactly what I mean by that now... 6 • Why is it “fundamental”? • Affect can be considered “fundamental” because of its centrality in Affect understanding/operating in life understanding/operating – Ubiquitous, usually accessible to awareness – – • Applicable, “best evidence” stimulus/state is desirable/not Little cognitive resources/processing motivation needed • See Cohen, Pham, & Andrade (2008), p.311 We shall also see that it helps guide us in what to process, how We what much to process it and even constrains how well we can effortfully much how process something process Later in Unit 4 (motivation): It's also a drive feedback system, Later approach/avoid, slow down/speed up, infer goal progress, adopt new goals or not, etc. new In short, it's a big deal: A common feedback metric for a lot of things In common and processes that would fall apart without it. and 7 • • What does affect have to do with What decision-making? decision-making? • There is only one “affect”: it has many facets, can come from There many different sources and processes simultaneously, and multiple emotions can even be experienced at the same time. multiple – But it is a single feedback report for so many things, But so based largely on how it is interpreted (what stimulus/process it is attributed to). stimulus/process – Wouldn't this leave the system open to confusion or Wouldn't glitches? YES, all the time! Plenty can go wrong. YES, This unit will focus on how affect works in our decisionmaking, and will uncover a number of “irrationalities” or making, system malfunctions along the way system • 8 Affect: 3 “types” • Despite there being only one “affect”, it is useful to talk about Despite what it comes as a reaction to (or what it is attributed to) because it has major implications for how judgment is impacted: impacted: – Integral affect: Affect directly due to experience with a target stimulus, correctly attributed correctly – Incidental affect: Affect due to sources other than the stimulus being evaluated, or “misattributed” “misattributed” • Note: Only awareness will cause differences in Note: awareness the impact of integral vs. incidental in judgments the – Task-related affect: Affect brought on by the process of making a decision 9 Integral affect: Correctly Attributed • • In terms of decision-making, integral affect's role is best understood as the simple In rule (“fundamental metric”) used to make decisions that we have already discussed. rule It is not the only thing that can be used to make these decisions, of course; other It rules (like using cognitive beliefs) can be used for evaluations of objects too (see Cohen et al., 2008, p.309 for list of citations). Cohen When is this rule especially likely to be used? (see p. 314) – – – – When processing resources/motivation are low Distracted or under time pressure Other bases of evaluation (“rules”) are ambiguous or computationally hard When affect appears relevant (e.g., “liking” or “experential” judgments, When especially approach-oriented) especially • Choosing what kind of cereal to buy from array is approachoriented, while choosing which home security system isn't (but the oriented, which decision to buy a system in the first place will be based heavily on to affect) affect) 10 10 • Incidental affect (1) (when the affect is just kinda out there...) • So maybe integral affect wasn't so exciting because we already So knew most of that from Unit 2... but with incidental affect, things get really interesting really • First off, incidental affect has 3 major implications for memory First major memory and perception (our “ingredients” for making decisions; see perception Schwartz & Clore, 1996, p.436 for citations Isen, Bower, & Clark): Isen, – State-dependent learning & recall (if you learned about decision rules on a day when you happened to be sad, you will recall that decision rule lecture better if you are sad vs. happy; also true for drugs/state of sleep deprivation too, if learned high then you'll recall it better when high assuming drug not hurting memory) you'll – – Mood-congruent encoding (you will learn happy-valenced info better when you are happy, & sad info better when sad) better Mood-congruent recall/elaboration (if you are happy now, you will recall happy info more readily than sad, and vice-versa) you 11 11 Incidental affect (2) (when the affect is just kinda out there...) • • The result is generally that incidental affect has a “congruency The effect” on unrelated judgments effect” This was first documented by Thorndike (1920) as the “halo This effect”; when asked to rate someone's attributes (like “intelligence” and “friendliness”), there was a medium-high correlation between unrelated traits correlation Corroborated many times over since then, such as Asch's Corroborated (1946) research on the centrality of affectively-valenced traits (warm/cold) on judgments of other traits (warm/cold) • • The important message: We are not able to tell exactly The what affect goes with what! Sort of like a page at a big what company delivering memos without recipients specified company – Someone's going to get the wrong message... Someone's 12 12 Incidental affect (3): Misattribution • Schwartz & Clore (1983) conducted a telephone survey study Schwartz asking people about how happy they were generally. asking – Called some people on a sunny day – Called others on a rainy day • The people who were called on a sunny day said they The were more happy. were • Then called some other people on sunny vs. rainy day, but this Then time told them that the weather could influence how they felt. time – Now the people called on a sunny day reported being no Now happier than those on a cloudy day = Misattribution of Misattribution affect from one thing to something totally different affect Thus, the affect can be confused but if you are aware of where it Thus, aware comes from, you can effortfully adjust your judgment to compensate for the biasing effect of affect in the background for 13 13 • Incidental affect (4): Misattribution • Surprise, surprise: pair happy things with consumer products Surprise, can make people like them more (see Cohen et al., 2008, p.315-6 all citations in that chapter, not in refs here): all – – People liked a soft drink more after watching pleasant vs. People unpleasant movie (Dommermuth & Millard, 1967) unpleasant People who got a small gift more willing to participate in People survey and evaluated product more favorably (Isen, Shalker, Clark, & Karp, 1978) Clark, People who had seen an ad for a pen with pleasant music in People background more likely to choose that pen over other pens available (Gorn, 1982) available – 14 14 Incidental affect (5): When does Misattribution happen? • Misattribution more likely when (Cohen et al., 317-319): – – Low/moderate processing motivation Distraction/cognitive resources low/moderate • (If too high, people will figure out where it came (If from) from) • (If too weak, may not notice affect so it won't (If make a difference in judgment) make Believe affect is relevant to decision being made Believe (meaningful “evidence”) (meaningful When affect takes place before/at same time as the When other object being misattributed is attended to other Source of affect is not salient (ambiguous; see next Source 15 15 slide) slide) – – – Incidental affect (6): When does Misattribution happen? • • Misattribution when source isn't salient Misattribution Dutton & Aron (1974), attractive young woman approaches Dutton hikers in national park and asks them to take a survey on park issues issues – Either approaches them before they cross a narrow Either rope bridge over a deep ravine (they do not feel aroused from it at this point) aroused – Or approaches them right at the end of the bridge Or (aroused from the fear of height) (aroused After taking the survey, hikers given her contact number and After told they could call her if they wanted to know the results of the survey when it was done (standard debrief procedure) the – More who were approached at end of bridge gave her a More 16 16 callback (thought she was attractive) callback • Incidental affect (7): Information Processing Capability • Affect also impacts the processing of information in two Affect processing major ways (see Cohen et al., p.321-323): (see major – – 1. Intensity of affect (arousal) 2. Valence of affect (positive/negative) • Intense affect (or high arousal) hinders effortful and Intense elaborative processing, and thus increases our reliance on simple cues on – – It cuts down on working/short-term memory, and this It hurts our ability to perceive accurately hurts Other research suggests that extremely low unpleasant Other extremely arousal (depression) is harmful to processing ability as well, although not clear that this generalizes to low 17 17 arousal-pleasant emotions arousal-pleasant Incidental affect (8): Information Processing Capability (2) • The valence of incidental affect (positive/negative) has well-documented The consequences as well: consequences – Positive affect has been found to cause greater flexibility and Positive creativity. Examples include generating examples of vehicles (cars, creativity Examples trucks, camels, wagon) or uses of a brick (paperweight, Olympic Medal Platform), tasks. Medal – However, negative affect has been found to cause greater depth of processing, less reliance on simple rules and greater processing of message arguments. When people feel negative affect it is a signal signal that not all is well, and attention needs to be diverted to find out why. why. • Exception: anger & disgust decrease the depth of Exception: processing, possibly because they are associated with an increase of felt confidence increase • Exception: Some evidence that positive affect will not Exception: decrease elaborative processing when continued happiness 18 18 depends on it (Hirt, Devers, & McCrae, 2008) depends Incidental affect (9): Risk-Taking (Cohen et al., p.323-4) • Lastly, incidental affect impacts risk-taking – Positive mood promotes risk-taking when low chances of Positive loss, but risk-avoidance when chances of loss are high (vs. neutral mood); positive mood seeks to “protect” itself neutral – Negative affect more complex: • Anger = prefer high risk/high reward, even when less Anger expected utility (highly unusual finding, but anger is related to higher reported confidence) related • Anxiety = prefer low risk/low reward • Sad = prefer high risk/high reward – (Note: these last 2 appear to be confounded (Note: with prevention vs. promotion somewhat; what is the goal!... make things better or goal!... keep from getting worse?) keep – Note: implications for financial investment decision-making? 19 19 Incidental affect (10): Note: Hedonic Contingency • Notice before we go on that there is a common theme in the processing Notice motivation and risk-taking literatures (as well as the task-related affect literature which we will see shortly): literature – Affect will influence decisions in such a way so that attention is Affect directed toward important goals (that is one of its primary functions). directed – One of those goals is to be in a chronically good mood!!! – So the impact of affect on our decision strategies will serve the So function of protecting against possible losses (when positive) and further/painful losses (when anxious) but allow for chances of improvement when further losses are not so much a concern (sad), or when it appears necessary or instrumental to elaborate more instrumental effortfully in order to maintain positive mood (the “exception” with positive affect) positive • Similar to the strategy difference between winning/losing Similar football team in 4th quarter of game, not just yards/points football 20 20 Task-related affect: • There are three major ways task-related affect can There influence perceptions and decisions: influence – 1. Constrain processing (arousal, flexibility, 1. creativity, etc., same as it does with incidental affect) • (Already covered this, no need to further (Already elaborate) elaborate) – 2. Misattribute affect related to the task onto the 2. task stimulus stimulus – 3. Negative affect from processing difficulty can 3. lead to avoidance or simpler heuristics lead 21 21 Task-related affect: (2) • 2. Misattribute task affect onto the stimulus. Schwartz, Bless, … (1991) 2. “assertiveness” experiment: “assertiveness” – Please think of and write down 6 times you were assertive OR Please OR – – – Please think of and write down 12 times you were assertive Please 12 (Everyone:) How assertive are you generally? Those who thought of 12 instances actually rated themselves as Those less assertive. Harder to think of times when assertive meant to less them that they must not be terribly assertive, despite 12 pieces of “evidence” (vs. only 6; cf Petty & Cacioppo info processing Unit 1) “evidence” • 3. Negative affect from processing difficulty leads to: – Simpler Heuristics to get rid of difficulty (see Luce, 1998) – Avoidance of decisions, at least for approach-type stimuli Avoidance (avoidance stimuli will cause negative affect even if they aren't dealt with no avoiding dealing with them won't help) with 22 22 Task-related affect: (3) • • • There are a number of examples of avoiding decisions when processing is There difficult (& producing negative affect): difficult Status quo bias (Luce, 1998). Do what the default option is, requires least effort (this is why opt-ins vs. opt-outs matter so much) effort “Sure thing” Principle (Tversky & Shafir, 1992). Imagine you had just finished taking a major final exam, and just found a great deal on a winter break vacation package that ends shortly. Your options are: buy now, decline now, or pay $5 to be able to decide in 2 days. decline 3 conditions in this experiment: – “Imagine you had just found out that you passed the big exam” – – • “Imagine you had just found out that you failed the big exam” “Imagine that you will find out how you did on the exam tomorrow” • Large majority of those who passed and failed exam bought the package (I Large deserve reward/I need something to pick me up), but those who didn't know how they did almost all deferred the decision (weren't comfortable making the choice; needed a “sure” reason to justify) 23 the 23 Task-related affect: (4) • • “Less can be more” Jam Study (Iyengar & Lepper, 2000, JPSP): JPSP): The researchers set up a sampling station for different kinds The of jam at a local supermarket, varied how many options the sample stand offered (6 vs. 30) sample Options: Options: (selection of jams) (selection How many stopped How to sample? sample How many actually How purchased? purchased 6 30 ? ? ? ? 24 24 Task-related affect: (4) • • “Less can be more” Jam Study (Iyengar & Lepper, 2000, JPSP): JPSP): The researchers set up a sampling station for different kinds The of jam at a local supermarket, varied how many options the sample stand offered (6 vs. 30) sample Options: Options: (selection of jams) (selection How many stopped How to sample? sample How many actually How purchased? purchased 6 30 40% 60% ? ? 25 25 Task-related affect: (4) • • “Less can be more” Jam Study (Iyengar & Lepper, 2000, JPSP): JPSP): The researchers set up a sampling station for different kinds The of jam at a local supermarket, varied how many options the sample stand offered (6 vs. 30) sample Options: Options: (selection of jams) (selection How many stopped How to sample? sample How many actually How purchased? purchased 6 30 40% 60% 30% (12%) 3% (2%) 26 26 Task-related affect: Interpretation: • Note that having too many options or not enough Note processing capacity will make us less likely to buy when we do not have a strong need for a product (when the do strong products make us feel good instead of stopping us from feeling bad); the aversive affect from intense processing isn't worth the potential gain if we already feel fine. isn't – However, this is not the final word on this topic; we However, shall see later that when someone has a strong need, more choices can deplete cognitive resources and lead to self-regulatory failure & overconsumption... just a heads-up. 27 27 Final Note • One final but huge role that stimulus-specific affect (emotion) One plays is that it is the feedback/control system for human (and animal) motivation animal) It tells us what is goal-worthy, what states are NOT desirable, It when to increase vs. decrease goal pursuit, when to adopt new goals vs. continue pursuing our current ones, helps select means to reach those goals... All these activities are going to be working using the same All communication system (or “fundamental metric” as we have called it before) of emotion, and we now have a pretty good idea of all the ways this communication system changes our decisions (many of them as side effects of other processes). decisions So we aren't done with affect yet. Unit 4: Motivation, is So coming up next. coming 28 28 • • • Review/integrate before finishing up: • Back in Unit 1 we built a decision model that will help us determine what Back decision rules are applied when making decisions. Rules used based on: Rules – Principles of knowledge activation: available (learned & in memory), Principles accessible (recently/frequently activated), applicable (rule contents match feature(s) of situation), salient feature in environment match – Cognitive resources available – Processing motivation mix (Bettman et al., 2008): • 1. Maximize accuracy • • • – • 2. Minimize effort 3. Minimize negative affect from effortful decision (this is 3. task-related affect but also self-regulatory, U#5) but self-regulatory, 4. Maximize ease of justification (will cover in U#4)* Background affect and background goals (U#4)* 29 29 Then in Unit 2 we went over some principles of “local” or on-the-spot Then decison-making, when preferences are not just retrieved memory... Review/integrate before finishing up: (2) • First Principle of Local Decision-Making: – “When choosing between two similar alternatives, we will generally When seek to impose a single favored metric that best 'fits' the choice to be made.” be – Examples include simple rules based on representativeness, Examples availability, most salient attribute, evaluable feature, & price One such rule/metric, affect, is particularly ubiquitous: One affect, Second Principle of Local Decision-Making: – “The most 'fundamental' metric humans have perceptually is their The affective reaction to a stimulus. This will be the 'default' metric of affective choice unless something clearly better is available; our 'most favored metric', if you will.” favored – As a result, losses overwhelm equal gains (& “endowment effect”), As small probabilities are overweighted, many little tricks of mental accounting = “irrational” accounting 30 30 • • Review/integrate before finishing up: (3) • • But sometimes we need to actually produce a number, not just a But preference... preference... Third Principle of Local Decision-Making: – “When an uncertain numerical estimate needs to be made, When the judgment will involve starting on an available anchor value and will adjust until the estimator “feels comfortable” (positive affect) with the last estimate adjustment generated (positive 31 31 Review/integrate before Review/integrate finishing up: (4) finishing • • Now in this last Unit (3) we have seen more of how affect—the three Now types specifically—impact this model and how rules are selected: types 1. Integral Affect (correctly attributed to stimulus) – Serves the informative role for decisions where affect is the most applicable metric (liking; unconscious actually does well at this) or when using better but more complex, abstract, or computationally difficult rules would require more processing than we are willing/able to give processing – Appropriate because tells us to approach/avoid (valence of Appropriate emotion), and how important it is to do so (felt intensity) 32 32 Review/integrate before finishing up: (5) • 2. Incidental Affect (it's there due to some other process/stimulus): – It alters the basic “ingredients” of decision-making (what will be It available/accessible to activate) with state-dependant and moodstate-dependant moodcongruent learning & recall This often results in congruency effect in multi-attribute judgments, This congruency like halo effect and trait centrality like Misattribution (of IA) onto unrelated stimulus can result in biased judgments if unaware of source of affect (unconscious), low processing motivation/cognitive resources, or ambiguous (like arousal from attractive female vs. high/narrow bridge similar) arousal • Basis for much consumer advertising – – – IA cuts down on processing capability when very intense and IA capability sometimes will reduce processing motivation when positive (but allows for greater flexibility & creativity) allows IA has complex effects on risk-taking judgments & behavior 33 33 – Review/integrate before finishing up: (6) • 3. Task-related Affect (aspects of task): 3. Task-related – 1. Constrain processing (arousal, flexibility, creativity, etc., 1. same as it does with incidental affect) – 2. Misattribute affect related to the task onto the stimulus 2. task stimulus • Difficulty remembering times of assertiveness leads to lower Difficulty judgment of self-assertiveness, even when have more evidence evidence – 3. Negative affect from processing difficulty can lead to 3. avoidance or simpler heuristics avoidance • • • Stick with status quo; essentially avoid processing Defer decision until feel comfortable, can justify it Avoid purchase decision: too many jams, can try but can't Avoid comfortably commit comfortably 34 34 References Asch, S. E. (1946). Forming impressions of personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Asch, Psychology, 41(3), 258-290. Psychology, (3), Cohen, J. B., Pham, M., & Andrade, E. B. (2008). The nature and role of affect in consumer behavior. In Haughtvedt, C. P., Herr, P. M., & Kardes, F. R. (Eds.), Handbook of Consumer Psychology. New York: Psychology Press. New Dutton, D. G., & Aron, A. P. (1974). Some evidence for heightened sexual attraction under Dutton, conditions of high anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30(4), 510-517. Journal Hirt, E. R., Devers, E. E., & McCrae, S. M. (2008). I want to be creative: Exploring the role of Hirt, hedonic contingency theory in the positive mood-cognitive flexibility link. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(2), 214-230. Personality Iyengar, S. S., & Lepper, M. R. (2000). When choice is demotivating: can one desire too Iyengar, much of a good thing? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(6), 995-1006. Journal Luce M. F. (1998). Choosing to avoid: Coping with coping with negatively emotion-laden Luce consumer decisions. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 409-433. Journal Roese, N. J. (1994). The functional basis of counterfactual thinking. Journal of Personality Roese, and Social Psychology, 66(5), 805-818. and 35 35 References Russell, J. A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Russell, Psychology, 39(6), 1161-1178. Psychology, Schachter, S., & Singer, J. (1962). Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of Schachter, emotional state. Psychological Review, 69(5), 379-399. Psychological Schwarz, N., Bless, H., Bohner, G., & Harlacher, U. (1991). Response scales as frames of Schwarz, reference: The impact of frequency range on diagnostic judgements. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 5(1), 37-49. Psychology, Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: Schwarz, Informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(3), 513-523. Psychology, Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1996). Feelings and phenomenal experiences. In (Eds.) Higgins, Schwarz, E. T., & Kruglanski, A. W., Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles. New York, Social NY, US: Guilford Press. NY, Thorndike, E. L. (1920). A consistent error in psychological ratings. Journal of Applied Thorndike, Psychology, 4(1), 25-29. Psychology, Tversky, A., & Shafir, E. (1992). Choice under conflict: The dynamics of deferred decision. Tversky, Psychological Science, 3(6), 358-361. Psychological 36 36 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2010 for the course PSYC 309 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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