Anthropologyexam2

Anthropologyexam2 - LANGUAGE-COMMUNICATION OF THOUGHTS AND...

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L ANGUAGE -C OMMUNICATION OF THOUGHTS AND FEELINGS THROUGH A SYSTEM OF ARBITRARY SIGNALS , SUCH AS VOICE SOUNDS , GESTURES , OR WRITTEN SYMBOLS . - SYSTEM OF SOUNGS COMBINED TO FORM WORDS , PHRASES AND SENTENCES . EX : GESTURE HIGH FIVE O RIGIN OF H UMAN L ANGUAGE - HUMAN CULTURE COUND NOT EXIST W / O LANGUAGE ; RECREATES COMPLEX THOUGHTS AND EXPERIENCES IN WORDS . V ARIOUS I NTERPRETATIONS OF L ANGUAGE A. P LATOS I NTERPRETATION - R ESULT OF IMITATION : FOR EXAMPLE : ONOMATOPOETIC WORDS AND PHRASES . ONOMATOPOEIA : “ BANG ” “ CLICK DIFFERENCES : J APAN : DOKI DOKI SPEEDING / BEATING OF THE HEART H INDI : DHADAK PERSONS HEART BEAT N EPALI : DHUK DHUK SPEEDING / BEATING OF THE HEART B. C HARLES H OCKETTS T HEORY - HE SUGGESTED THAT LANGUAGE EVOLVED IN 2 STEPS . 1. B LENDING OF 2 OLD CALLS ( PRELANGUAGE ) 2. D UALITY OF PATTERNING C OMMUNICATION - THE ACT OF TRANSMITTING INFORMATION INTENDED TO INFLUENCE THE BEHAVIOR OF ANOTHER ORGANISM . C ALL S YSTEM - A FORM OF COMMUNICATION AMONG NONHUMAN PRIMATES COMPOSED OF A LIMITED # OF SOUNDS THAT ARE TIED TO SPECIFIC STIMULI IN THE ENVIRONMENT . B LENDING - THE COMBINATION OF 2 CALLS TO PRODUCE A NEW CALL ; A HYPOTHESIZED EARLY PHASE IN LANGUAGE EVOLUTION . E X : MA = FOOD MAMA = MOM P RELANGUAGE - LANGUAGE OF HUMAN ANCESTORS CONSISTING OF BLENCDED SOUNDS ; HYPOTHESIZED 1 ST STEP IN THE EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE . D UALITY OF PATTERNING : THE ABILITY TO PRODUCE ARRANGEMENTS OF BLENDED SOUNDS ; THE HYPOTHESIZED 2 ND STEP IN THE EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE . EX : KITE ( RELATED TO SOUNDS , NOT LETTERS ); TIE / I / IT / EAT / EYE / CUT / TALK C HARACTERISTICS OF L ANGUAGE : 1. C ONVENTIONALITY : IN HUMAN LANGUAGE , WORDS ARE ONLY CONVENTIONALLY CONNECTED TO THINGS FOR WHICH THEY STAND . EX : “ A IS FOR A ; “ B IS FOR B IN ENGLISH ; P IS FOR RHO IN GREEK ; EACH LANGUAGE HAS ITS OWN CONVENTION . 2. P RODUCTIVE : THE IDEA THAT HUMANS CAN COMBINE SOUNDS / WORDS INTO MEANINGFUL UTTERANCES THEY HAVE NEVER BEFORE HEARD . EX : W / LIMITED SOUNDS , OUR LIMITED VOCABULARY AND UNLIMITED EXPRESSIONS . WE KNOW AT LEAST 50,000 WORDS TO SURVIVE . 3. D ISPLACEMENT : THE CAPACITY OF ALL LANGUAGES TO DESCRIVE THINGS NOT HAPPENING IN THE PRESENT TIME . EX : “ I WILL COME TOMORROW …. HE JUMPED SWIFTLY A CQUIRING LANGUAGE : HUMANS WOULD SPEAK NO LANGUAGE IF THEY WERENT TAUGHT ; THE BRAIN AND THE BODY ARE BIOLOGICALLY ADAPTED FOR LANGUAGE .
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U NIVERSAL GRAMMAR : THE THEORY OF LINGUISTICS POSTULATING PRINCIPLES OF GRAMMAR SHARED BY ALL LANGUAGES , THOUGHT TO BE INNATE TO HUMANS . N
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course ANT 252 taught by Professor Flowerday during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.

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Anthropologyexam2 - LANGUAGE-COMMUNICATION OF THOUGHTS AND...

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