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Bio 101 Day 14 - Ferns(Phylum Pteridophyta-Largest and most...

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Ferns (Phylum Pteridophyta) -Largest and most diverse group of seedless vascular plants -Fern sporophyte (2n) consists of a rhizome (underground stem) that bears megaphylls (sometimes as fiddleheads) and true roots -Use water as a transport system -Flagellate sperm swing from nearby thallus to neck of archegonium via a thin film of water on ground under prothallus Megaphyll Evolution:
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Dichotomously branching stems (equal branches, vascular tissue) unequal branching (thicker main stem, thinner side branch) branching in same plane Webbing of side branch system Megaphyll (many veins) Equal branching develops into webbing between close branches; become filled with chlorophyll- containing cells Ferns Wisk Ferns: -Sporophytes (2n) have dichotomously (equal) vertical aerial stems -DO NOT have true roots and leaves -Horizontal underground rhizome Christmas Fern Mosquito Fern Staghorn Fern—an epiphyte—grows attached to another organism but derives no nourishment Fern Life Cycle Gemetophyte lacks vascular tissue; has tiny rhizoids Fern Gametophyte (n) Prothallus: develops from haploid spore bears both archegonia and antheridia Fern Sporophytes (2n) -Plant with roots, rhizomes, leaves are megaphylls -Leaves (fronds) bear sporangia in clusters (son) -Meiosis in sporangia produces haploid spores Horsetails -Reproductive sporophyte (2n) have: -hollow, jointed aerial stems, impregnated with silica (gritty) -Rhizomes, strobili
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-Leaves are reduced megaphylls -Green stem is the main organ of photosynthesis -Also have non-reproductive (vegetative) shoots -Used as scourers to scrub pots and pans -Calamites (ancient) had underground rhizome where roots and aerial shoots originated -Equisetum; unbranched reproductive shoots, bearing conelike strobili SEE TABLE 27-2 Homospory -Sporangium (2n) produces one kind of spore as a result of meiosis
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