Lecture 6 - -Macromolecules...

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A. Why do we eat? B. What do we eat? C. Human Digestive System 1. Functions 2. General Structure 3. Organs Stomach empty --secretes ghrelin (hormone) -talks to hypothalamus Hypothalamus Ghrelin will make hypothalamus make NPY -source of NPY (Neuropeptide Y) --release tells brain that food is needed 1. Short Term After Meal: -Small Intestine Hormones: -cholecystokinin (CCK)—released in response to food in small intestine -response to fat and protein -negative control on NPY in hypothalamus -PPY -Insulin -when levels go up—signal to brain that (satity center tells how full) 2. Long Term
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a. Good Energy availability: -insulin -adipose tissue—stored energy as triglycerides/lipids -leptin—hormone secreted by adipose sites b. Poor Energy availability: -insulin low -adisope tissue low -leptin low -NPY-HIGH c. Energy Yield -Which provides most energy per gram? Lipids 9 kcal Proteins 4 kcal Carbs 4 kcal Biosynthesis -carbohydrates -proteins -lipids What do we eat?
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Unformatted text preview: -Macromolecules Carbohydrates-Monosaccharides (Glucose, Fructose)-Disaccharides (Sucrose, Lacrase)-Polysaccharides (Cellulose, Starch, Glycogen) Cellulose—bulk of what we consider dietary fiber-rates of cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease-Lack of dietary fiber—higher rate of colon cancer When fat is in diet—rate of food movement decreases CW-Dietary Fiber Lipids-Fats & Oils Triglycerides-3 carbon backbone-Fatty-acid side chains (Use and Know Lipids, pg. 56-57 until Phospholipids) “Fats”-saturated fatty acids-no double or triple bonds in between carbons-animals—majority are saturated-Van der Wals interactions “Oils”-unsaturated fatty acids-from plants-limited Van der Waals interactions Hydrogenation-partially or fully saturated-trans-fats—straighter—more Van der Waals—act more like saturated--higher incidence of heart disease with trans-fats--unsaturated fats go bad faster...
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2010 for the course BIO 01-119-10 taught by Professor D'arville during the Fall '09 term at Rutgers.

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Lecture 6 - -Macromolecules...

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