8 Political Parties and Campaigns

8 Political Parties and Campaigns - PS 110 8 Political...

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PS 110 8: Political Parties and Campaigns 8-1 political party : ongoing coalition of interests joined together in an effort to get its candidates for public office elected under a common label A—Party Competition 1. Early US Party Competition a. Washington Administration’s split: i. rivalry between Jefferson and Hamilton in the Washington administration (Jeffersonian Republicans vs. Federalists) ii. Republicans defeated the Federalists in the 1800 election, ending their dominance b. Jeffersonian Democracy (1800-1828)—domination by the Democratic-Republicans i. Democratic-Republicans dominated through the administrations of Jefferson and Madison (1800-1816) ii. Era of Good Feelings (1816-1824) under James Monroe, with little opposition iii. foundered under John Quincy Adams (1824-1828) c. Jacksonian Democracy (1828-1860) i. reforms: party organization: (1) grassroots party : political party originated at the level of the voters, dependent on their support for strength (2) spoils system : system of rewarding political supporters with appointments into the federal administration upon electoral victory electoral expansion: (1) unit rule : reform to make the electoral vote more reflective of the popular will by awarding each state’s electoral votes to the winner of the popular vote in the state (2) suffrage was expanded to all free white males, regardless of property, leading to quadrupled turnout in 1830s elections ii. new party split: Jacksonian Democratic-Republicans, or Democrats Whigs : loose coalition opposing the Jacksonian Democrats between 1828 and 1856 d. both the Democrats and the Whigs splintered along regional lines over the issue of slavery in the 1850s, leaving the 1860 election with four major candidates (eked out for Abraham Lincoln) 2. party realignment : transition from one party system to another a. characteristics: i. disruption of existing order due to emergence of one or more unusually powerful or divisive issues ii. election contest in which voters shift support strongly in favor of one party iii. major change in policy brought about through stronger party’s actions iv. enduring change in party coalitions (to dominate party’s benefit) b. realignments since the Civil War: i. 1865—Republicans dominated after the Northern victory in the Civil War controlled Congress for all but 4 years and the presidency excluding Cleveland until 1896
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Democratic Party secured the “Solid South” ii. 1896—voters blamed Democratic president Grover Cleveland for Panic of 1893, reinstalling Republicans Republicans made gains in the Northeast and the Midwest Republicans controlled Congress for all but 6 years and the presidency excluding
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8 Political Parties and Campaigns - PS 110 8 Political...

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