3a.Lec03E2lec100W10 - E2: Solution Color Session 1: Two...

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Unformatted text preview: E2: Solution Color Session 1: Two Hour Lab Agenda* Complete Part 1(Solution preparation) Complete Part 2 Start Part 3 or Part 4 as indicated by GSI * See the “Student Information Sheet” on Ctools u nder Experiment 2 within Resources. E2 Goals (Parts 1 -3) Is salt solution color predictable from: • the position of the metal ion’s element in the periodic table? • the metal ion’s electron configuration? • the metal ion’s ionic radius? • Visible light interactions? Session 2: Three Hour Lab Agenda Complete Parts 3, 4, and 5 Part 1. Preparation and Color of Solutions 1 Background Info: Solution Color 1 VA Hydrogen Hydrogen H+ Teams prepare solutions with different metal ions Record the color of solutions. IIIA 4 IVA H+ Metal ion solutions of the same metal element with different charges may have different colors. IIIA 4 IVA VA 3 Li+ Be Lithium Beryllium 3 13 IIIB 21 IVB VB 22 VIB 24 VIIB 25 VIIIB 26 ! 27 VIIIB IB 28 29 IIB 30 Li+ Be Lithium Beryllium 11 Sodium Magnesium Na+ Mg 2+ 19 12 DEMO: V2+ vs. V3+ etc. 13 IIIB 21 IVB VB 22 VIB 24 VIIB 25 VIIIB 26 ! 27 VIIIB IB 28 29 IIB 30 Aluminum Aluminum Al3+ Ti 40 23 11 32 Potassium Calcium ScandiumTitanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron K+ 37 20 Ca 2 + Sc 39 V Cr 3+ Mn 42 Fe 3+ Co 2+ Ni 2 + Cu 2 + Zn 2 + Ga Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc 31 Sodium Magnesium Na+ Mg 2+ 19 12 Al3+ Ti 40 23 Galium Germanium Ge 50 Rb 55 38 Sr 2 + Y 56 RubidiumStrontium Yitrium Zircon- Niobium Molybdenum ium Zr 72 41 Nb 73 Mo 74 43 Tc 75 44 Ru 76 45 Rh 77 46 Pd 78 47 Ag+ Cd 2 + In 79 48 49 TechnetiumRuthenium RhodiumPalladium Silver Cadmium Iridium Tin Sb Sn2+ Antimony 82 83 P b2 + Bi 51 Potassium Calcium ScandiumTitanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron K+ Ca 2+ Sc 37 20 V Cr 3+ Mn 42 Fe 3+ Co 2+ Ni 2 + Cu 2+ Zn 2+ Ga Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc 31 32 Galium Germanium Ge 50 Cesium Cs Ba 2 + La* Hf 57 Barium Lanthanum Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Ta W Re Os Ir Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Pt Au 80 Hg 2+ Tl 81 Bismuth RubidiumStrontium Yitrium Zircon- Niobium Molyb- TechnetiumRuthenium RhodiumPalladium Silver Cadmium Iridium Tin denum ium Rb Sr 2+ Y 38 39 Zr Nb 41 Mo Tc 43 44 Ru 45 Rh Pd Ag+ Cd 2 + In 46 47 48 49 Sn 2 + Sb 51 Antimony Periodic Table with common metal ion charges. Solution Color Background Information: Preparation of solutions and moles Vanadium solutions with different cation charges. __________________________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 2 Moles and the Periodic Table? 1 H 1.008 Where are moles represented on the periodic table? 4 5 6 7 8 9 He 4.003 3 10 ? Li 6.940 Be 9.013 B 10.82 C 14 N 15 O 16 F 17 Ne 20.183 12.011 14.008 15.999 19.00 11 19 12 20 38 87.63 13 18 Na Mg 22.991 24.32 Al 26.98 Si 28.09 P 33 74.91 S 34 78.96 Cl 35 Ar 36 30.975 32.06 35.457 39.944 21 44.96 22 23 24 52.01 25 54.94 26 55.85 27 58.94 28 58.71 29 63.54 30 65.38 31 69.72 32 72.60 K 37 85.48 Ca Sc 39 Ti 47.90 V 50.95 Cr Mn Fe 42 95.95 Co Ni 45 102.9 Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se 47 79 48 80 200.61 Br 53 Kr 54 39.100 40.08 79.916 83.80 40 41 92.91 43 (99) 44 101.1 46 106.4 49 81 50 82 51 83 52 84 Rb Sr 55 87 56 88 Y 88.92 Zr 91.22 Nb Mo Tc 73 105 (262) Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In 107.88 112.41 Sn Sb Te Pb Bi Po (209) I 85 Xe 86 114.82 118.70 121.76 127.61 126.91 131.30 57† 72 74 106 (263) 75 76 77 192.2 78 Cs Ba La Hf 89†† 104 (261) Ta W Ha -58 59 91 Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl At (210) Rn (222) 132.91 137.36 138.92 178.50 180.95 183.86 186.22 190.2 195.09 197.0 204.39 207.21 208.9 Fr (223) Ra Ac Rf 226.05 (227) 60 92 61 93 62 94 (242) 63 95 (243) 64 96 (245) 65 97 (249) 66 98 (251) 67 99 68 100 (255) 69 101 (256) 70 102 (254) 71 103 (257) Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er 150.35 152.35 157.26 158.93 162.51 164.94 167.2 Tm Yb Lu 168.94 173.04 174.99 140.13 140.92 144.27 (145) National Mole Day: October 23. Why? 90 Th Pa 232.05 (231) U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es (254) Fm Md No Lr 238.07 (237) 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 2 Mole = mol = 6.02 x 1023 item = atomic wt (g) = formula wt (g) H 1.008 3 4 Mole of H2O = _____grams? He 4.003 5 6 7 8 9 10 Li 6.940 Be 9.013 B 10.82 C 14 N 15 O 16 F 17 Ne 20.183 12.011 14.008 15.999 19.00 11 19 12 20 38 87.63 13 18 Na Mg 22.991 24.32 Al 26.98 Si 28.09 P 33 74.91 S 34 78.96 Cl 35 Ar 36 30.975 32.06 35.457 39.944 21 44.96 22 23 24 52.01 25 54.94 26 55.85 27 58.94 28 58.71 29 63.54 30 65.38 31 69.72 32 72.60 K 37 85.48 Ca Sc 39 Ti 47.90 V 50.95 Cr Mn Fe 42 95.95 Co Ni 45 102.9 Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se 47 79 48 80 200.61 Br 53 Kr 54 39.100 40.08 79.916 83.80 40 41 92.91 43 (99) 44 101.1 46 106.4 49 81 50 82 51 83 52 84 Rb Sr 55 87 56 88 Y 88.92 Zr 91.22 Nb Mo Tc 73 105 (262) Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In 107.88 112.41 Sn Sb Te Pb Bi Po (209) I 85 Xe 86 114.82 118.70 121.76 127.61 126.91 131.30 57† 72 74 106 (263) 75 76 77 192.2 78 Cs Ba La Hf 89†† 104 (261) Ta W Ha -58 90 59 91 Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl At (210) Rn (222) 132.91 137.36 138.92 178.50 180.95 183.86 186.22 190.2 195.09 197.0 204.39 207.21 208.9 Fr (223) Ra Ac Rf 226.05 (227) 60 92 61 93 62 94 (242) 63 95 (243) 64 96 (245) 65 97 (249) 66 98 (251) 67 99 68 100 (255) 69 101 (256) 70 102 (254) 71 103 (257) Ce Pr Th Pa 232.05 (231) Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er 150.35 152.35 157.26 158.93 162.51 164.94 167.2 Tm Yb Lu 168.94 173.04 174.99 140.13 140.92 144.27 (145) U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es (254) Fm Md No Lr 238.07 (237) Molar Reflections* Yesterday I took a drink of water And something strange happened in my head I made an actual connection With something that my chemistry teacher said I could visualize lots and lots of molecules Movin i n the water to and fro… and then I thought If I just drank 1 8 grams of water I just drank a mole of H2 O! ____________ Molar reflections, … *www.mole.org; Mike Offuttã2002 Moles and Solution Preparation # M = # Molar Solution # = moles per 1000 mL of solution or mmoles per mL of solution Example: 2.0 M NaCl = 2 moles NaCl p er 1000 mL = 2 mmoles NaCl p er mL Metal Ions and Solution Preparation • Metal ions are hydrated and bonded to electron pairs on water molecules in aqueous solution = [Na(H2O)6]+ Hexaaquosodium ion 1 liter = 1000 mL 1 00 m L 2 mLpipet = ∼ 40 drops • Solid salts may be hydrated or anhydrous Ni2+ + 6 H2O [Ni(H2O)6]2+ Solution preparation Hexaaquonickel ion • All teams are to prepare 0.10 M solutions of the team assigned salts. Nickel-Nitrate-Hexahydrate: Ni(NO3)2• 6H2O Solution preparation • Read the reagent label for the salt sample CuSO4 • 5 H2O = Hydrated copper sulfate CuSO4 = anhydrous copper s ufate Salt solution preparation • Determine the mass of a mole of the salt CuSO4 • 5 H2O = copper sulfate p entahydrate Example CuSO4· 5 H2O = Cu + S + 4 (O) + 5 (2 x H + O) = 63.55 + 32.07 + 4(16) + 5 (2 + 16) = 249.62 DEMO Salt solution preparation • Determine the mass (g) of salt (e.g.CuSO4·5H2O) needed to prepare 100 mL of 0.10 M solution Salt Solution preparation 249.62 g x 1 mol 0.10 mol 1000 mL x 100 mL = 2.50 g Calibration line DEMO Volumetric flasks •Transfer the weighed sample (2.50 g of CuSO4·5H2O) to a 100 mL Vol flask and add water to the calibration line Solution Preparation Salt solution preparation Your teammate adds 1 liter (1000 mL) of water to 58.45 g of NaCl to prepare 1.0 M N aCl. The resulting solution was too dilute ( < 1.0 M ). Why? Information: FW N aCl Na + Cl = FW NaCl 22.99 + 35.46 = 58.45 g N aCl Answer: 1 mol NaCl w as contained in a volume greater than 1000 mL. Less than 1000 mL of water is required since the salt itself occupies volume. E2: Solution Color (Parts 2 and 3) Use a spectrophotometer to examine the relationship between solution color and absorption and transmission of visible light. Spectrophotometer Light source Diffraction grating Sample solution Detector • Record visible wavelength colors (Part 2) Spectrophotometer Absorption Spectrum A plot of absorbance versus wavelength Absorbance λ max Constants: Sample conc. Path length Variable: Wavelength • Record absorbance values of the solution across the visible spectrum wavelengths (Part 3). Recording Absorbance • Calibrate (0 absorbance and 100% transmission) the spectrophotomer with the blank every time you change the λ before taking the absorbance Light Absorbance vs. Transmission ABSORBANCE = -LOG TRANSMITTANCE Abs = 0 100% light transmitted Abs = 1 10% light transmitted Part 3 Results Q. Identify the wavelength of transmission max in the absorption spectrum below. Absorbance λ max • Enter the visible s olution color in CoLABnet • Based on the sample’s absorption spectrum: - enter the sample’s absorption λ max - enter the sample’s transmission λ max Transmission λmax E2: Calibration Curve (Part 4) •Prepare a set of diluted samples from your 0.10 M solution Solution Dilution (Part 4) • Initial mmoles = Final mmoles M i Vi = M f Vf One buret contains the solution to be diluted One buret contains water Add H2O Solution Burets clamped to ring stand Diluted solution Calculating Solution mmol M x V (where V= mL) Q. How many mmol are contained in 1000 mL of a 1 M solution of X? M x V = 1 mmol x 1000 mL = 1000 mmol mL Solution Dilution • Solution Molarity changes but initial mmoles = final mmoles Add H2 O → 0.10 M x 10 mL 1 mmol 0.05 M x 20 mL ___ + 10 m L H 2 O = 1 mmol Q. What volume of 0.10 M Ni(NO3)2 do you need to prepare 20.0 mL of 0.07 M Ni(NO3 )2? Solution Delivery M1 V 1 = M 2 V2 0.10 M • X mL = 0.07 M • 20.0 ml 0.10 M • X mL = 1.4 mmol X = 14.0 m L N i(NO3)2 Q. What volume of H 2 O do you add to 14.0 mL of 0.10 M Ni(NO3)2 ? 6. 0 mL H2O Fill the buret and tip Record the initial volume Solution Delivery Solution Dilution Open the stopcock to deliver the solution into the flask. Record the final volume; Calculate and record the delivered solution volume ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2010 for the course PSYCH 123 taught by Professor 123 during the Spring '10 term at University of Michigan.

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